The effect of posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on patellofemoral contact pressures in the knee joint under simulated muscle loads.

Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
The American Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.44). 01/2004; 32(1):109-15. DOI: 10.1177/0095399703258794
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The mechanism of cartilage degeneration in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ) and medial compartment of the knee following posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury remains unclear. PCL reconstruction has been recommended to restore kinematics and prevent long-term degeneration. The effect of current reconstruction techniques on PFJ contact pressures is unknown.
To measure PFJ contact pressures after PCL deficiency and reconstruction.
Eight cadaveric knees were tested with the PCL intact, deficient, and reconstructed. Contact pressures were measured at 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees of flexion under simulated muscle loads. Knee kinematics were measured by a robotic testing system, and the PFJ contact pressures were measured using a thin film transducer. A single bundle achilles tendon allograft was used in the reconstruction.
PCL deficiency significantly increased the peak contact pressures measured in the PFJ relative to the intact knee under both an isolated quadriceps load of 400 N and a combined quadriceps/hamstrings load of 400 N/200 N. Reconstruction did not significantly reduce the increased contact pressures observed in the PCL-deficient knee.
The elevated contact pressures observed in the PCL-deficient knee and reconstructed knee might contribute to the long-term degeneration observed in both the non-operatively treated and PCL-reconstructed knees.

  • Orthopedics 07/2012; 35(7):562-3. · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) plays an important role in maintaining physiological kinematics and function of the knee joint. To date mainly in-vitro models or combined magnetic resonance and fluoroscopic systems have been used for quantifying the importance of the PCL. We hypothesized, that both tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematic patterns are changed in PCL-deficient knees, which is increased by isometric muscle flexion. Therefore the aim of this study was to simultaneously investigate tibiofemoral and patellofemoral 3D kinematics in patients suffering from PCL deficiency during different knee flexion angles and under neuromuscular activation. METHODS: We enrolled 12 patients with isolated PCL-insufficiency as well as 20 healthy volunteers. Sagittal MR-images of the knee joint were acquired in different positions of the knee joint (0[degree sign], 30[degree sign], 90[degree sign] flexion, with and without flexing isometric muscle activity) on a 0.2 Tesla open MR-scanner. After segmentation of the patella, femur and tibia local coordinate systems were established to define the spatial position of these structures in relation to each other. RESULTS: At full extension and 30[degree sign] flexion no significant difference was observed in PCL-deficient knee joints neither for tibiofemoral nor for patellofemoral kinematics. At 90[degree sign] flexion the femur of PCL-deficient patients was positioned significantly more anteriorly in relation to the tibia and both, the patellar tilt and the patellar shift to the lateral side, significantly increased compared to healthy knee joints. While no significant effect of isometric flexing muscle activity was observed in healthy individuals, in PCL-deficient knee joints an increased paradoxical anterior translation of the femur was observed at 90[degree sign] flexion compared to the status of muscle relaxation. CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes in tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint kinematics occur in patients with isolated PCL-insufficiency above 30 degrees of flexion compared to healthy volunteers. Since this could be one reasonable mechanism in the development of OA our results might help to understand the long-term development of tibiofemoral and/or patellofemoral osteoarthritis in PCL-insufficient knee joints.
    BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 11/2012; 13(1):231. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of arthroscopic transtibial single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using autologous patellar tendon and hamstring tendon grafts. METHODS: From 1998 to 2007, 59 patients with symptomatic isolated posterior cruciate ligament injury were included in this retrospective study. Twenty-five knees were reconstructed using bone-patellar tendon-bone graft, and 34 knees were reconstructed using hamstring graft. In both groups, surgical techniques were similar, except material of fixation screws. Patients were evaluated pre-operatively and post-operatively at the latest follow-up with several parameters, including symptoms, physical examination, outcome satisfaction, functional scores, radiography and complications. RESULTS: Average follow-up period was 51.6 months in patellar tendon group and 51.1 months in hamstring tendon group. Significantly more kneeling pain (32 vs. 3 %), squatting pain (24 vs. 3 %), anterior knee pain (36 vs. 3 %), posterior drawer laxity and osteoarthritic change were shown in patellar tendon group than in hamstring tendon group post-operatively. No significant differences were found in other parameters between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Several shortcomings, including anterior knee pain, squatting pain, kneeling pain and osteoarthritic change, have to be concerned when using patellar tendon autograft. In conclusion, hamstring tendon autograft may be a better choice for transtibial tunnel PCL reconstruction.
    Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 01/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor