The effect of digestion of collagen and elastin on histomorphometry and the zero-stress state in rat esophagus.
ABSTRACT To understand the physiology and pathology of the esophagus, it is necessary to know the mechanical properties and their dependence on the structural components. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of collagenase and elastase on the morphological and biomechanical properties in the no-load and zero-stress states in the rat esophagus. Twenty tissue rings from each esophagus of seven normal rats were sectioned in an organ bath containing calcium-free Krebs solution with dextran and EGTA. After the rings were photographed in the no-load state, 8 of the 20 rings were separated into mucosa-submucosa and muscle rings and the rings were transferred to four different solutions containing collagenase, elastase, or corresponding control solutions. The rings were cut radially to obtain the zero-stress state and photographed again. The thickness, area, and opening angle were measured from the digitized images. The collagen and elastin area fractions were determined from histological slides with Van Gieson and Weigert's elastic stain. The opening angles and residual strain did not differ in the nonseparated enzyme-treated rings and control rings. However, in the separated mucosa-submucosa ring the opening angle was significantly smaller after treatment than that in control rings (P < 0.01). Collagenase and elastase reduced collagen and elastin in the mucosa-submucosa layer about 40% in the nonseparated wall and 54% in the separated mucosa-submucosa layer (P < 0.01). Collagenase and elastase increased the thickness in the separated mucosa-submucosa layer compared to the control (P < 0.05). Disconnection between the epithelia and the lamina propria was histologically observed after elastase digestion. In conclusion, collagenase and elastase caused the opening angle and the residual strain in the separated mucosa-submucosa layer to decrease. The opening angle of the separated mucosa-submucosa layer depended to some extent on the fraction of collagen and elastin.
- Gastroenterology 07/1973; 64(6):1119-25. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The function of the esophagus is to move food by peristaltic motion, which is the result of the interaction of the tissue forces in the esophageal wall and the hydrodynamic forces in the food bolus. To understand the tissue forces in the esophagus, it is necessary to know the zero-stress state of the esophagus, and the stress-strain relationships of the tissues. This article is addressed to the first topic: the representation of zero-stress state of the esophagus by the states of zero stress-resultant and zero bending moment of the mucosa-submucosa and the muscle layers. It is shown that at the states of zero stress-resultant and zero bending moment, these two layers are not tubes of smaller radii but are open sectors whose shapes are approximately cylindrical and more or less circular. When the sectors are approximated by circular sectors, we measured their radii, opening angles, and average thickness around the circumference. Data on the radii, thickness-to-radius ratios, and the opening angles of these sectors are presented. Knowing the zero-stress state of these two layers, we can compute the strain distribution in the wall at any in vivo state, as well as the residual strain in the esophageal wall at the no-load state. The results of the in vivo states are compared to those obtained by a conventional approach, which treats the esophageal wall as a homogeneous material, and to another popular simplification, which ignores the residual strains completely. It is shown that the errors caused by the homogeneous wall assumption are relatively minor, but those caused by ignoring the residual strains completely are severe.Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 11/1999; 121(5):442-8. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The human aorta has five major components from which the aortic walls can be characterized: mucopolysaccharides, smooth muscle, collagen, micro-fibrilar glycoprotein (associated with the elastic fiber), and elastin. Enzymes were employed to remove four of the components sequentially without destroying the mechanical characteristics of the remaining components in order to elucidate the structure-property relationship in the human aorta. Before treatment the initial mechanical behavior was recorded on an Instron Tensile testing machine. After enzymolysis the samples and controls were again tested and these results compared to their prior characteristics. Stress-strain characteristics after a sequence of enzyme treatments indicate that two of the components share the major part of the stress in the circumferential direction. These components, elastin and collagen, contribute as if they were in parallel to each other with the collagen in a crimped state.Biomaterials, medical devices, and artificial organs 02/1977; 5(2):121-45.