Volumetric neuroirnaging and low-dose early-life exposures: Loose coupling of pathogenesis-brain-behavior links
ABSTRACT The interface of developmental neuroimaging with developmental neurotoxicology can, broadly speaking, address two complementary concerns. The first is to study the impact of specific exposures on brain development. The second is to study known neurobehavioral disorders with an eye to discerning toxicological contributions to pathogenesis. Pathogenesis targets brain based upon physical properties (receptors, growth factors, etc.) while behavior is modulated by regional and neural systems alterations. The distribution of pathogenesis-brain relationships overlaps only partially with that of brain-behavior relationships. The goal of this paper is to highlight methodological issues involved in designing and interpreting volumetric neuroimaging studies in the light of this loose coupling.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: David A Ziegler, Jul 02, 2015
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ABSTRACT: In a pilot developmental neurotoxicity study, a protocol was designed to utilize three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) images for linear and volumetric measurements of the developing rat brain. MR imaging, because of its non-destructive nature, provides a complement to traditional optical microscopy. Sprague-Dawley dams received 0, 1.25, 4.0 or 7.5mg/kg methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) by intraperitoneal injection during gestation days 13-15. At postnatal days (PND) 23 and 60, brains from representative male and female rats from two dams in each dose group were fixed with 10% neutral buffered formalin by transcardial perfusion for in situ MR imaging. A 7T small animal magnet system was used to obtain isotropic images at 100 microm resolution for PND 23 and 150 microm resolution for PND 60. Data from a rapid screening method based on midpoint MR slices of whole brain, cerebrum, cerebellum, and hippocampus showed a dose-related decreased volume of whole brain, cerebrum, and hippocampus in treated rats. Subsequent volumetric estimates using the Cavalieri method confirmed these findings. The brains were subsequently removed and processed for conventional histologic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. It is concluded that MR imaging in rat developmental neurotoxicity studies offers the advantages of in situ volumetric measurements of brain structures while preserving the samples for conventional optical microscopy.NeuroToxicology 10/2006; 27(5):846-51. DOI:10.1016/j.neuro.2006.06.005 · 3.05 Impact Factor