Both Corynebacterium diphtheriae DtxR(E175K) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis IdeR(D177K) are dominant positive repressors of IdeR-regulated genes in M. tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) is an important iron-dependent transcriptional regulator of known virulence genes in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The mycobacterial iron-dependent repressor (IdeR) is phylogenetically closely related to DtxR, with high amino acid similarity in the DNA binding and metal ion binding site domains. We have previously shown that an iron-insensitive, dominant-positive dtxR(E175K) mutant allele from Corynebacterium diphtheriae can be expressed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and results in an attenuated phenotype in mice. In this paper, we report the M. tuberculosis IdeR(D177K) strain that has the cognate point mutation. We tested four known and predicted IdeR-regulated gene promoters (mbtI, Rv2123, Rv3402c, and Rv1519) using a promoterless green fluorescent protein (GFP) construct. GFP expression from these promoters was abrogated under low-iron conditions in the presence of both IdeR(D177K) and DtxR(E175K), a result confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. The IdeR regulon can be constitutively repressed in the presence of an integrated copy of ideR containing this point mutation. These data also suggest that mutant IdeR(D177K) has a mechanism similar to that of DtxR(E175K); iron insensitivity occurs as a result of SH3-like domain binding interactions that stabilize the intermediate form of the repressor after ancillary metal ion binding. This construct can be used to elucidate further the IdeR regulon and its virulence genes and to differentiate these from genes regulated by SirR, which does not have this domain.
Article: ideR, An essential gene in mycobacterium tuberculosis: role of IdeR in iron-dependent gene expression, iron metabolism, and oxidative stress response.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mycobacterial IdeR protein is a metal-dependent regulator of the DtxR (diphtheria toxin repressor) family. In the presence of iron, it binds to a specific DNA sequence in the promoter regions of the genes that it regulates, thus controlling their transcription. In this study, we provide evidence that ideR is an essential gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ideR cannot normally be disrupted in this mycobacterium in the absence of a second functional copy of the gene. However, a rare ideR mutant was obtained in which the lethal effects of ideR inactivation were alleviated by a second-site suppressor mutation and which exhibited restricted iron assimilation capacity. Studies of this strain and a derivative in which IdeR expression was restored allowed us to identify phenotypic effects resulting from ideR inactivation. Using DNA microarrays, the iron-dependent transcriptional profiles of the wild-type, ideR mutant, and ideR-complemented mutant strains were analyzed, and the genes regulated by iron and IdeR were identified. These genes encode a variety of proteins, including putative transporters, proteins involved in siderophore synthesis and iron storage, members of the PE/PPE family, a membrane protein involved in virulence, transcriptional regulators, and enzymes involved in lipid metabolism.Infection and Immunity 08/2002; 70(7):3371-81. · 4.16 Impact Factor
Article: Transcriptional control of the iron-responsive fxbA gene by the mycobacterial regulator IdeR.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Exochelin is the primary extracellular siderophore of Mycobacterium smegmatis, and the iron-regulated fxbA gene encodes a putative formyltransferase, an essential enzyme in the exochelin biosynthetic pathway (E. H. Fiss, Y. Yu, and W. R. Jacobs, Jr., Mol. Microbiol. 14:557-569, 1994). We investigated the regulation of fxbA by the mycobacterial IdeR, a homolog of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae iron regulator DtxR (M. P. Schmitt, M. Predich, L. Doukhan, I. Smith, and R. K. Holmes, Infect. Immun. 63:4284-4289, 1995). Gel mobility shift experiments showed that IdeR binds to the fxbA regulatory region in the presence of divalent metals. DNase I footprinting assays indicated that IdeR binding protects a 28-bp region containing a palindromic sequence of the fxbA promoter that was identified in primer extension assays. fxbA regulation was measured in M. smegmatis wild-type and ideR mutant strains containing fxbA promoter-lacZ fusions. These experiments confirmed that fxbA expression is negatively regulated by iron and showed that inactivation of ideR results in iron-independent expression of fxbA. However, the levels of its expression in the ideR mutant were approximately 50% lower than those in the wild-type strain under iron limitation, indicating an undefined positive role of IdeR in the regulation of fxbA.Journal of Bacteriology 07/1999; 181(11):3402-8. · 3.83 Impact Factor
Article: Genetic characterization of a Streptococcus mutans LraI family operon and role in virulence.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Proteins belonging to the LraI (for "lipoprotein receptor antigen") family function as adhesins in several streptococci, as a virulence factor for endocarditis in at least one of these species, and potentially as metal transporters in many bacteria. We have identified and characterized the chromosomal locus containing the LraI family gene (designated sloC) from Streptococcus mutans, an agent of dental caries and endocarditis in humans. Northern blot analysis indicated that sloC is cotranscribed with three other genes. As with other LraI operons, the sloA and sloB genes apparently encode components of an ATP-binding cassette transport system. The product of the fourth gene, sloR, has homology to the metal-dependent regulator from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, DtxR. A potential binding site for SloR was identified upstream from the sloABCR operon and was conserved upstream from LraI operons in several other streptococci. Potential SloR homologs were identified in the unfinished genomic sequences from two of these, S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes. Mutagenesis of sloC in S. mutans resulted in apparent loss of expression of the entire operon as assessed by Northern blot analysis. The sloC mutant was indistinguishable from its wild-type parent in a gnotobiotic rat model of caries but was significantly less virulent in a rat model of endocarditis. Virulence for endocarditis was restored by correction of the sloC mutation but not by provision of the sloC gene in trans, suggesting that virulence requires the expression of other genes in the sloC operon.Infection and Immunity 09/2000; 68(8):4441-51. · 4.16 Impact Factor