Comparative effects of fexofenadine and montelukast on allergen-induced wheal and flare

The Institute for Asthma and Allergy, Wheaton, MD, 20902, USA.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings (Impact Factor: 3.06). 05/2005; 26(3):221-8.
Source: PubMed


Comparisons of the efficacy, onset and duration of action of fexofenadine and montelukast are limited. This study evaluated the pharmacodynamic properties of these agents in an allergen-induced wheal-and-flare model. This randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study was composed of three treatment periods and two visits on consecutive days for each period, with each period separated by a 14-day (+/-4) washout. At each treatment visit, subjects received a predose allergen skin-prick test followed by either a single dose of fexofenadine HCl 180 mg, montelukast sodium 10 mg, or placebo. Allergen skin-prick testing was performed at 20, 40, and 60 minutes, then hourly through 12 hours and at 23 hours and 24 hours postdose. Adults (n = 48) with positive skin-prick tests were included in the analysis. Significant flare inhibition occurred from 40 minutes through 24 hours postdose for fexofenadine versus placebo (p < 0.05), whereas montelukast did not reach statistical significance for flare inhibition at any time point compared with placebo. Significant wheal inhibition occurred from 60 minutes through 24 hours postdose for fexofenadine versus placebo (p = 0.0012); montelukast did not significantly suppress wheal versus placebo at any time point. Fexofenadine had greater suppression than montelukast for both wheal and flare from 40 minutes through 24 hours (p < .05). Maximum suppression of flare and wheal reached 79.0 and 72.3% for fexofenadine, and 7.3 and 9.6% for montelukast. Fexofenadine suppressed the allergen-induced wheal-and-flare response to a significantly greater extent, and had a significantly faster onset of action, compared with montelukast.

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    • "Since montelukast, a potent and selective leukotriene receptor antagonist, suppresses allergic inflammation [4–8], improves control of asthma [8] and reduces symptoms of seasonal [4, 5] and perennial [6, 7] allergic rhinitis (AR), it is possible that it may inhibit skin response to allergens measured in skin prick tests. Although guidelines for skin prick testing do not recommend discontinuation of montelukast before the SPT [1, 2], most studies relied on assessment of wheal and flare reactions after the single dose [9] or a very short-term treatment with montelukast [10]. Furthermore, there were studies that confirmed gradually increasing improvement of AR symptoms in the course of long-lasting treatment with montelukast [7, 11, 12] or combination of montelukast with antihistamine [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Because antileukotrienes may inhibit inflammation, it is plausible that montelukast administered for a long time could suppress skin wheal and flare reaction, and thus, it should be discarded prior to the tests. This study assessed the effect of long-lasting treatment with montelukast alone or in combination with antihistamines on wheal and flare in skin pricks tests (SPT) in patients sensitized to perennial allergens. We conducted a 32-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over and randomized trial that implicated two arms: arm A, 20 patients received levocetirizine, montelukast with or without levocetirizine or placebo; arm B, 20 patients received desloratadine, montelukast with or without desloratadine or placebo. All treatment periods lasted 6 weeks and were separated by 2-week washouts. At baseline and on the last day of each treatment period, SPT were performed in all participants. Both levocetirizine and desloratadine in monotherapy, or in combination with montelukast, were effective in reducing wheal and flare in SPT. Monotherapy with montelukast did not change the size of the wheal for either histamine or for house dust mites, in either arm of the study, but significantly reduced the size of flare for histamine in arm A. Addition of montelukast to antihistamine did not exceed efficacy of monotherapy with antihistamine in both arms of the study. Since the size of wheal determines the results of SPT, montelukast, even taken for a long time, does not have to be discarded prior to the tests.
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic rhinitis symptoms, in particular nasal congestion, can have a significant impact on patient quality of life, resulting in reduced productivity and daytime sleepiness. Newer-generation antihistamines are commonly used to treat allergic rhinitis; however, in patients with severe congestion, a combination of a newer-generation antihistamine and a decongestant is particularly beneficial. A new once-daily fexofenadine/pseudoephedrine combination has been developed and recently approved in the US. The combination provides an effective, well-tolerated antihistamine and a reliable, sustained-release pseudoephedrine system. In addition, small tablet size and once-daily dosing may provide patients with increased convenience and improve adherence. In summary, the combination of immediate-release fexofenadine/sustained-release pseudoephedrine offers an important additional option for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.
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