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Available from: Douglas Casa, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "e - quires a 5 day acclimatization period at the beginning of each season with specific guidelines about length of practice and the use of protective equipment ( NCAA 2002 ; Howe & Boden , 2007 ) . A longer acclimatization period of at least 14 days is recommended for youth athletes due to their greater susceptibility to heat - related illnesses ( Bergeron et al . 2005 ; Casa & Csillan , 2009 ) . While professional and collegiate level athletic programs have already adopted strong heat safety policies , there is considerable variations among high school interscholastic programs ( Korey Stringer Institute e KSI , 2014 ) . In 2014 , only 13 states have heat policy guidelines for athletic participation th"
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    ABSTRACT: Exertional heat illnesses affect thousands of athletes each year across the United States (U.S.). Heat safety guidelines such as those developed by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) are widely used to direct activities based on environmental conditions but rely on a uniform set of heat safety categories. Due to geographic variations in heat exposure and acclimatization, however, lower heat safety thresholds may be needed in areas with cooler climates. Our study addresses this shortcoming by developing regional guidelines for athletic activity that use relative thresholds of a commonly used heat metric -- the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). We employed a unique WBGT climatology for the contiguous U.S. to determine locally extreme WBGTs, defined as the 90th percentile warm season daily maximum value, for 217 stations. Three heat safety regions were identified based on local extremes: Category 3 (WBGTs ≥ 32.3 °C), Category 2 (30.1-32.2 °C), and Category 1 (≤30 °C). Geographically, Category 3 encompasses much of the southeastern quadrant of the U.S. along with portions of the Southwest, and the Central Valley of California; Category 2 areas extend in an arc from the interior Northwest through Nevada and portions of the Midwest, Ohio Valley, and Northeast; and Category 1 locations include the Pacific Coast, New England, and the northern tier of the country. Associated regional activity guidelines based on those developed by the ACSM and the Georgia High School Association (GHSA) were developed for each heat safety region.
    Applied Geography 01/2015; 56:55-60. DOI:10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.10.014 · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    • "In this context, it is important to note that an inadequate nutrient intake and hypohydration could affect the physical health of the athlete and possibly contribute to sports injuries (Convertino et al., 1996). Large sweat losses, insufficient fluid intake, and consequent fluid deficits will likely impair performance and may increase the risk of hyperthermia and heat injury (Bergeron et al., 2005), stressing the importance of appropriate hydration before training and matches in soccer players. In this context, by ending the day dehydrated, fasting players could be exposed to a higher risk of injury. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many of the socio-cultural lifestyle and dietary changes that take place during Ramadan may affect the risk of injury in athletes, but little evidence is available. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects over two consecutive years of the holy month of Ramadan on injury rates in 42 professional players of a Tunisian top-level professional soccer team. Players were retrospectively organized into fasting and non-fasting groups and monitored for 3 months: 4 weeks before Ramadan, during the month of Ramadan (4 weeks), and 4 weeks after Ramadan each year. During Ramadan, training started at 22.00 h. The circumstances (training/match) and mechanism of injury (traumatic/overuse) were recorded. No significant differences between the three periods were observed for weekly mean training load, training strain, training duration, and Hooper's Index (quality of sleep, and quantities of stress, delayed-onset muscle soreness, and fatigue). Compared with non-fasting players, fasters had a lower (P < 0.05) Hooper's Index and stress during and after Ramadan. No significant difference in injury rates was observed between fasting and non-fasting players. Nevertheless, the rates of non-contact (6.8 vs. 0.6 and 1.1) and training overuse (5.6 vs. 0.6 and 0.5) injuries were significantly higher in fasting players during the month of Ramadan than before or after Ramadan. In conclusion, Ramadan, along with the corresponding changes in nutritional habits, sleeping schedule, and socio-cultural and religious events, significantly increased overuse and non-contact injuries in fasting players despite the fact that the training load, strain, and duration were maintained.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 06/2012; 30 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S93-102. DOI:10.1080/02640414.2012.696674 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    • "Thus, longer acclimatization periods may be an important strategy for reducing the number of hyperthermia-related deaths. Bergeron et al. (2005) offer suggested acclimatization plans for both high school and youth football players. At high school level, for instance, they suggest a 14-day acclimatization plan where coaches carefully adjust the level of dress, and length and intensity of practice sessions as the players gain fitness and adapt to the ambient meteorological conditions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Over the period 1980-2009, there were 58 documented hyperthermia deaths of American-style football players in the United States. This study examines the geography, timing, and meteorological conditions present during the onset of hyperthermia, using the most complete dataset available. Deaths are concentrated in the eastern quadrant of the United States and are most common during August. Over half the deaths occurred during morning practices when high humidity levels were common. The athletes were typically large (79% with a body mass index >30) and mostly (86%) played linemen positions. Meteorological conditions were atypically hot and humid by local standards on most days with fatalities. Further, all deaths occurred under conditions defined as high or extreme by the American College of Sports Medicine using the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), but under lower threat levels using the heat index (HI). Football-specific thresholds based on clothing (full football uniform, practice uniform, or shorts) were also examined. The thresholds matched well with data from athletes wearing practice uniforms but poorly for those in shorts only. Too few cases of athletes in full pads were available to draw any broad conclusions. We recommend that coaches carefully monitor players, particularly large linemen, early in the pre-season on days with wet bulb globe temperatures that are categorized as high or extreme. Also, as most of the deaths were among young athletes, longer acclimatization periods may be needed.
    International Journal of Biometeorology 12/2010; 56(1):11-20. DOI:10.1007/s00484-010-0391-4 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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