Resting heart rate changes after endurance training in older adults: a meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT Question remains regarding endurance training and changes in resting heart rate (HR) among older individuals. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of controlled aerobic training on resting HR among sedentary older adults.
Studies were identified by a systematic computer database search, hand article search, and cross-reference. The inclusion criteria were (i) controlled clinical trials, (ii) endurance exercise as the only intervention, (iii) a nonexercise control group, (iv) within-group mean ages of subjects > or = 60 yr, (v) a measure of changes in resting HR, (vi) studies published in English journals.
Outcome was derived from 13 studies with a total of 651 individuals in 14 control (N = 241) and 16 exercise groups (N = 410). The pooled standardized effect size by a fixed-effect model showed an upper moderate effect of -0.58 +/- 0.08 (mean +/- SEM, 95% CI = -0.74 to -0.42). This homogeneity effect was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The magnitude of net change averaged -6 bpm (-2 to -12 bpm), representing an 8.4% reduction. Greater and statistically significant decrease of resting HR among the elderly was found in the studies with training length more than 30 wk.
This meta-analytic investigation supports the efficacy of endurance exercise training in decreasing HR at rest in older adults. This training induced adaptation may have protective benefits for cardiovascular aging. A longer exercise training length, probably more than 30 wk, may be needed for older individuals to be more effective in terms of resting HR reduction.
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ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the quality of clinical trials should be assessed by blinded raters to limit the risk of introducing bias into meta-analyses and systematic reviews, and into the peer-review process. There is very little evidence in the literature to substantiate this. This study describes the development of an instrument to assess the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in pain research and its use to determine the effect of rater blinding on the assessments of quality. A multidisciplinary panel of six judges produced an initial version of the instrument. Fourteen raters from three different backgrounds assessed the quality of 36 research reports in pain research, selected from three different samples. Seven were allocated randomly to perform the assessments under blind conditions. The final version of the instrument included three items. These items were scored consistently by all the raters regardless of background and could discriminate between reports from the different samples. Blind assessments produced significantly lower and more consistent scores than open assessments. The implications of this finding for systematic reviews, meta-analytic research and the peer-review process are discussed.Controlled Clinical Trials 03/1996; 17(1):1-12.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of exercise intensity on resting blood pressure (BP) in normotensive elderly subjects, 44 sedentary healthy subjects aged 60 to 79 years of age were studied during 6 months of walking exercise. Subjects were ranked according to maximal oxygen consumption and randomly stratified to groups that trained at 70% (n = 19) or 80% to 85% (n = 14) of maximal heart rate reserve, or to a control group (n = 11) that did not train. Initial BP was established during a 2- to 3-week control period. During the first 3 months, both exercise groups progressed to 70% of heart rate reserve for 40 minutes 3 times each week. The moderate-intensity group continued to train at 70% (45-minute duration) for an additional 3 months, whereas the high-intensity group progressed to training at 85% of heart rate reserve (35-minute duration). Maximal oxygen consumption increased (p < or = 0.05) during the initial 3 months in both exercise groups (25.2 to 28.1 ml.kg-1.min-1 and 26.3 to 29.3 ml.kg-1.min-1) and continued to increase (p < or = 0.05) after 3 additional months of training, but the increase was greater (p < or = 0.05) in the high-intensity group (28.1 to 29.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 and 29.3 to 32.8 ml.kg-1.min-1). Systolic BP decreased (p < or = 0.05) similarly at 6 months in both training groups (120 to 111 mm Hg and 120 to 112 mm Hg).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)The American Journal of Cardiology 06/1994; 73(15):1124-8. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of long-term aerobic training on psychological function was examined in 87 sedentary older adults who engaged in a year-long endurance exercise training program compared with a nonexercising control group. In addition to improved cardiovascular fitness, a positive change in self-reported morale was found for the exercise condition. Of the cognitive functions measured, a significant effect was noted for the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) Logical Memory subtest; however, this effect was caused by a decline in performance from pre- to posttesting in the control group. Long-term exercise training had little, if any, effect on improving cognitive function in this older adult sample.Journal of Gerontology 02/1993; 48(1):P12-7.