Resting heart rate changes after endurance training in older adults: A meta-analysis
ABSTRACT Question remains regarding endurance training and changes in resting heart rate (HR) among older individuals. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of controlled aerobic training on resting HR among sedentary older adults.
Studies were identified by a systematic computer database search, hand article search, and cross-reference. The inclusion criteria were (i) controlled clinical trials, (ii) endurance exercise as the only intervention, (iii) a nonexercise control group, (iv) within-group mean ages of subjects > or = 60 yr, (v) a measure of changes in resting HR, (vi) studies published in English journals.
Outcome was derived from 13 studies with a total of 651 individuals in 14 control (N = 241) and 16 exercise groups (N = 410). The pooled standardized effect size by a fixed-effect model showed an upper moderate effect of -0.58 +/- 0.08 (mean +/- SEM, 95% CI = -0.74 to -0.42). This homogeneity effect was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The magnitude of net change averaged -6 bpm (-2 to -12 bpm), representing an 8.4% reduction. Greater and statistically significant decrease of resting HR among the elderly was found in the studies with training length more than 30 wk.
This meta-analytic investigation supports the efficacy of endurance exercise training in decreasing HR at rest in older adults. This training induced adaptation may have protective benefits for cardiovascular aging. A longer exercise training length, probably more than 30 wk, may be needed for older individuals to be more effective in terms of resting HR reduction.
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ABSTRACT: Declines in maximal aerobic power and skeletal muscle force production with advancing age are examples of functional declines with aging, which can severely limit physical performance and independence, and are negatively correlated with all cause mortality. It is well known that both endurance exercise and resistance training can substantially improve physical fitness and health-related factors in older individuals. Circuit-based resistance training, where loads are lifted with minimal rest, may be a very effective strategy for increasing oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, strength, and functional capacity while improving body composition. In addition, circuit training is a time-efficient exercise modality that can elicit demonstrable improvements in health and physical fitness. Hence, it seems reasonable to identify the most effective combination of intensity, volume, work to rest ratio, weekly frequency and exercise sequence to promote neuromuscular, cardiorespiratory and body composition adaptations in the elderly. Thus, the purpose of this review was to summarize and update knowledge about the effects of circuit weight training in older adults and elderly population, as a starting point for developing future interventions that maintain a higher quality of life in people throughout their lifetime.01/2013; 4(5):256-263. DOI:10.14336/AD.2013.0400256
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the types of physical activity (PA) retirement community residents report and the effects of PA and depressive symptoms on functional limitations. Elders (N = 38) enrolled in a 2-year sensor technology study in senior housing completed regular assessments of functional limitations and depressive symptoms with the Short Physical Performance Battery and Geriatric Depression Scale, respectively. Evaluation of reported PA using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly coincided with 12-month functional limitation testing. Subjects were 69% female with mean age of 85 years. Individuals reporting greater PA had significantly fewer functional limitations at 12 months. In multiple regression analysis, baseline functional limitations explained 66% of the variance in 12-month functional limitations, while current PA explained an additional 5%. Although PA explained a small amount of variance in 12-month functional limitations, as a modifiable behavior, PA should be championed and supported to help ameliorate functional limitations in older adults.Clinical Nursing Research 02/2014; 24(1). DOI:10.1177/1054773813508133 · 0.87 Impact Factor