Structure of the light chain-binding domain of myosin V.

Boston Biomedical Research Institute, 64 Grove Street, Watertown, MA 02472, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 10/2005; 102(36):12718-23. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0503899102
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Myosin V is a double-headed molecular motor involved in organelle transport. Two distinctive features of this motor, processivity and the ability to take extended linear steps of approximately 36 nm along the actin helical track, depend on its unusually long light chain-binding domain (LCBD). The LCBD of myosin V consists of six tandem IQ motifs, which constitute the binding sites for calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-like light chains. Here, we report the 2-A resolution crystal structure of myosin light chain 1 (Mlc1p) bound to the IQ2-IQ3 fragment of Myo2p, a myosin V from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This structure, combined with FRET distance measurements between probes in various CaM-IQ complexes, comparative sequence analysis, and the previously determined structures of Mlc1p-IQ2 and Mlc1p-IQ4, allowed building a model of the LCBD of myosin V. The IQs of myosin V are distributed into three pairs. There appear to be specific cooperative interactions between light chains within each IQ pair, but little or no interaction between pairs, providing flexibility at their junctions. The second and third IQ pairs each present a light chain, whether CaM or a CaM-related molecule, bound in a noncanonical extended conformation in which the N-lobe does not interact with the IQ motif. The resulting free N-lobes may engage in protein-protein interactions. The extended conformation is characteristic of the single IQ of myosin VI and is common throughout the myosin superfamily. The model points to a prominent role of the LCBD in the function, regulation, and molecular interactions of myosin V.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The class I myosins are an ubiquitous family of non-filamentous, single-headed actin-binding motor proteins. The objective of this study was to identify the light chain composition of the short-tailed Dictyostelium class I myosins, MyoIA and MyoIE. Flag- tagged MyoIA head-neck and MyoIE head-neck constructs were generated and expressed in Dicyostelium discoidem. The MyoIA and MyoIE head-neck constructs both co- purified with a 17-kDa protein that reacted with an anti-calmodulin,antibody,and exhibited a mobility shift on SDS gels in the presence of calcium. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the light chain bound to MyoIA and MyoIE was calmodulin. The finding that the short-tailed class I Dictyostelium myosins,use the generic calcium- binding protein calmodulin as a light chain contrasts with previous work showing,that the long-tailed Dictyostelium class I myosins MyoIB, MyoIC, and MyoID each bind a unique, specialized light chain called MlcB, MlcC, and MlcD, respectively. Despite having a calmodulin light chain, calcium did not affect the actin-activated Mg-ATPase activities of MyoIA or MyoIE.
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