Cloning, functional expression, and characterization of CYP709C1, the first sub-terminal hydroxylase of long chain fatty acid in plants. Induction by chemicals and methyl jasmonate.
ABSTRACT We cloned and characterized CYP709C1, a new plant cytochrome P450 belonging to the P450 family, that so far has no identified function except for clustering with a fatty acid metabolizing clade of P450 enzymes. We showed here that CYP709C1 is capable of hydroxylating fatty acids at the omega-1 and omega-2 positions. This work was performed after recoding and heterologous expression of a full-length cDNA isolated from a wheat cDNA library in an engineered yeast strain. Investigation on substrate specificity indicates that CYP709C1 metabolizes different fatty acids varying in their chain length (C12 to C18) and unsaturation. CYP709C1 is the first identified plant cytochrome P450 that can catalyze sub-terminal hydroxylation of C18 fatty acids. cis-9,10-Epoxystearic acid is metabolized with the highest efficiency, i.e. K((m)(app)) of 8 microM and V(max(app)) of 328 nmol/min/nmol P450. This, together with the fact that wheat possesses a microsomal peroxygenase able to synthesize this compound from oleic acid, strongly suggests that it is a physiological substrate. Hydroxylated fatty acids are implicated in plant defense events. We postulated that CYP709C1 could be involved in plant defense by producing such compounds. This receives support from the observation that (i) sub-terminal hydroxylation of 9,10-epoxystearic acid is induced (15-fold after 3 h) in microsomes of wheat seedlings treated with the stress hormone methyl jasmonate and (ii) CYP709C1 is enhanced at the transcriptional level by this treatment. CYP709C1 transcript also accumulated after treatment with a combination of the safener naphthalic acid anhydride and phenobarbital. This indicates a possible detoxifying function for CYP709C1 that we discussed.
Article: Gene expression profiles deciphering rice phenotypic variation between Nipponbare (Japonica) and 93-11 (Indica) during oxidative stress.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rice is a very important food staple that feeds more than half the world's population. Two major Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies, japonica and indica, show significant phenotypic variation in their stress responses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic variation are still largely unknown. A common link among different stresses is that they produce an oxidative burst and result in an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, methyl viologen (MV) as a ROS agent was applied to investigate the rice oxidative stress response. We observed that 93-11 (indica) seedlings exhibited leaf senescence with severe lesions under MV treatment compared to Nipponbare (japonica). Whole-genome microarray experiments were conducted, and 1,062 probe sets were identified with gene expression level polymorphisms between the two rice cultivars in addition to differential expression under MV treatment, which were assigned as Core Intersectional Probesets (CIPs). These CIPs were analyzed by gene ontology (GO) and highlighted with enrichment GO terms related to toxin and oxidative stress responses as well as other responses. These GO term-enriched genes of the CIPs include glutathine S-transferases (GSTs), P450, plant defense genes, and secondary metabolism related genes such as chalcone synthase (CHS). Further insertion/deletion (InDel) and regulatory element analyses for these identified CIPs suggested that there may be some eQTL hotspots related to oxidative stress in the rice genome, such as GST genes encoded on chromosome 10. In addition, we identified a group of marker genes individuating the japonica and indica subspecies. In summary, we developed a new strategy combining biological experiments and data mining to study the possible molecular mechanism of phenotypic variation during oxidative stress between Nipponbare and 93-11. This study will aid in the analysis of the molecular basis of quantitative traits.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(1):e8632. · 4.09 Impact Factor