Article

Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil.

Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87501, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 31.48). 09/2005; 309(5739):1387-90.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The complexity of soil bacterial communities has thus far confounded effective measurement. However, with improved analytical methods, we show that the abundance distribution and total diversity can be deciphered. Reanalysis of reassociation kinetics for bacterial community DNA from pristine and metal-polluted soils showed that a power law best described the abundance distributions. More than one million distinct genomes occurred in the pristine soil, exceeding previous estimates by two orders of magnitude. Metal pollution reduced diversity more than 99.9%, revealing the highly toxic effect of metal contamination, especially for rare taxa.

1 Bookmark
 · 
148 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Funding Information We thank our reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions. Abstract Current limitations in culture-based methods have lead to a reliance on cul-ture-independent approaches, based principally on the comparative analysis of primary semantides such as ribosomal gene sequences. DNA can be remarkably stable in some environments, so its presence does not indicate live bacteria, but extracted ribosomal RNA (rRNA) has previously been viewed as an indicator of active cells. Stable isotope probing (SIP) involves the incorporation of heavy isotopes into newly synthesized nucleic acids, and can be used to separate newly synthesized from existing DNA or rRNA. H 2 18 O is currently the only potential universal bacterial substrate suitable for SIP of entire bacterial communities. The aim of our work was to compare soil bacterial community composition as revealed by total versus SIP-labeled DNA and rRNA. Soil was supplemented with H 2 18 O and after 38 days the DNA and RNA were co-extracted. Heavy nucleic acids were separated out by CsCl and CsTFA density centrifugation. The 16S rRNA gene pools were characterized by DGGE and pyrosequencing, and the sequence results analyzed using mothur. The majority of DNA (~60%) and RNA (~75%) from the microcosms incubated with H 2 18 O were labeled by the isotope. The analysis indicated that total and active members of the same type of nucleic acid represented similar community structures, which suggested that most dominant OTUs in the total nucleic acid extracts contained active members. It also supported that H 2 18 O was an effective universal label for SIP for both DNA and RNA. DNA and RNA-derived diversity was dissimilar. RNA from this soil more comprehensively recovered bacterial richness than DNA because the most abundant OTUs were less numerous in RNA than DNA-derived community data, and dominant OTU pools didn't mask rare OTUs as much in RNA.
    MicrobiologyOpen. 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is sensitive to climate change, with ecosystems that are important with respect to scientific research. Here high-throughput DNA pyrosequencing was used to assess bacterial diversity within different alpine grassland ecosystems of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. In total, 34,759 sequences were obtained for the three ecosystems––alpine cold swamp meadow (ASM), alpine cold meadow (AM), alpine sandy grassland (ASG), and 31 phyla and a small number of unclassified bacteria were detected. The bacterial community structures were different for each alpine grassland ecosystem. The Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were the predominant phyla in all three ecosystems. Besides this, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were abundant in ASM, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Verrucomicrobia were abundant in AM, and Actinobacteria were abundant in ASG. In addition, the functional bacterial genera also differed with each alpine grassland ecosystem. The ASM contained more nitrifying bacteria, methane-oxidizing bacteria and sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, whereas the ASG ecosystem contained more nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Pyrosequencing provided a greater insight into bacterial diversity within different alpine grassland ecosystems than previously possible, and gave key data for the involvement of bacteria in the protection of alpine grassland ecosystems of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.
    Environmental earth sciences 08/2013; 72(3):779-786. · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Sustainability 01/2015; 7(1):988-1027. · 1.08 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
50 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014