Decidualization of ovarian endometriosis during pregnancy mimicking malignancy.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this series is to present deciduosis (the formation of extrauterine decidua) as one of the differential diagnoses of a malignant tumor during pregnancy.
Two cases are described in which pregnant patients had a pelvic tumor. The lesions, which were diagnosed in the early second trimester, consisted of complex masses with an extensive blood supply and had a sonographic appearance of a malignant tumor. The high suspicion for malignancy necessitated surgical intervention.
During surgery, the lesions were observed to be of an ovarian origin with papillary excrescences covering their exterior. The lesions were excised and sent for histologic examination. The results showed a markedly decidualized endometriotic cyst in both cases.
This phenomenon is a diagnostic challenge and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a malignant mass during pregnancy.
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ABSTRACT: During pregnancy, masses that are larger than 5 cm and appearing in the Doppler ultrasonography as having increased blood flow, echoes of heterogeneous density, and containing solid components are suspicious for malignancy; however, differential diagnosis of decidualized endometriomas should also be considered. The patient was an 8 weeks pregnant primigravida. The ultrasonographic evaluation showed a cystic mass of size 65 × 57 mm in the left ovary that was well circumscribed, heterogeneous, with highly dense internal echo, and containing a solid component of size 8 × 14 mm. In the 12th week, the ultrasonographic examination revealed an increase in the size of the mass and increased arterial blood flow in the mass. The patient underwent surgery. It was observed that both ovaries were adherent in the Douglas pouch and that the left ovary contained an endometrioma of size 8cm. While the capsule was being peeled, lesions of soft density, with irregular surfaces, and with adhesion in the Douglas pouch were observed. The results of the frozen section revealed decidualized endometrioma and decidual structures. Even in pregnant women when adnexal masses are encountered and the ultrasonography, Doppler, MRI, and CA 125 level analysis still do not favor endometriosis, decidualized endometrioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis.Case reports in obstetrics and gynecology. 01/2013; 2013:728291.
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ABSTRACT: Endometriosis, which is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a common cause of pelvic pain and infertility, affecting as many as 10% of premenopausal women. Because its effects may be devastating, radiologists should be familiar with the various imaging manifestations of the disease, especially those that allow its differentiation from other pelvic lesions. The "pearls" offered here are observations culled from the authors' experience with the use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the detection and characterization of pelvic endometriosis. First, the inclusion of T1-weighted fat-suppressed sequences is recommended for all MR examinations of the female pelvis because such sequences facilitate the detection of small endometriomas and aid in their differentiation from mature cystic teratomas. Second, it must be remembered that benign endometriomas, like many pelvic malignancies, may exhibit restricted diffusion. Although women with endometriosis are at risk for developing clear cell and endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancers (ie, endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers), imaging findings such as enhancing mural nodules should be confirmed before a diagnosis of ovarian malignancy is offered. The presence of a dilated fallopian tube, especially one containing hemorrhagic content, is often associated with pelvic endometriosis. Deep (solid infiltrating) endometriosis can involve the pelvic ligaments, anterior rectosigmoid colon, bladder, uterus, and cul-de-sac, as well as surgical scars; the lesions often have poorly defined margins and T2 signal hypointensity as a result of fibrosis. The presence of subcentimeter foci with T2 hyperintensity representing ectopic endometrial glands within these infiltrating fibrotic masses may help establish the diagnosis. © RSNA, 2012.Radiographics 10/2012; 32(6):1675-91. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Radiological examinations are required for the assessment of complex or indeterminate ovarian masses, mainly using MRI and CT-scan. MRI provides better tissue characterization than Doppler ultrasound or CT-scan (LE2). Pelvic MRI is recommended in case of an indeterminate or complex ovarian ultrasonographic mass (grade B). The protocol of a pelvic MRI should include morphological T1 and T2 sequences (grade B). In case of solid portion, perfusion and diffusion sequences are recommended (grade C). In case of doubt about the diagnosis of ovarian origin, pelvic MRI is preferred over the CT-scan (grade C). MRI is the technique of choice for the difference between functional and organic ovarian lesion diagnosis (grade C). It can be useful in case of clinical diagnostic uncertainty between polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian hyperstimulation and multilocular ovarian tumor syndrome (grade C). No MRI classification for ovarian masses is currently validated. The establishment of a presumption of risk of malignancy is required in a MRI report of adnexal mass with if possible a guidance on the histological diagnosis. In the absence of clinical or sonographic diagnosis, pelvic CT-scan is recommended in the context of acute painful pelvic mass in non-pregnant patients (grade C). It specifies the anomalies and allows the differential diagnosis with digestive and urinary diseases (LE4). Given the lack of data in the literature, the precautionary principle must be applied to the realization of a pelvic MRI in a pregnant patient. A risk-benefit balance should be evaluated case by case by the clinician and the radiologist and information should be given to the patient. In an emergency situation during pregnancy, pelvic MRI is an alternative to CT-scan for the exploration of acute pelvic pain in case of uncertain sonographic diagnosis (grade C).Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 11/2013; · 0.45 Impact Factor