Article

Long-term course of adolescent schizophrenia.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Albert Ludwigs University Freiburg, Hauptstr. 8, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany.
Schizophrenia Bulletin (Impact Factor: 8.61). 08/2005; 31(3):769-80. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbi014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Our study investigated premorbid functioning, course, and outcome in early-onset schizophrenia. All inpatients with DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia (n = 101) consecutively admitted between 1983 and 1988 to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Marburg in Germany were included. To assess premorbid adaptation and precursor symptoms, we administered the Instrument for the Retrospective Assessment of the Onset of Schizophrenia, which we modified to assess children and adolescents. Symptomatology was measured by the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In addition, the Global Assessment of Functioning was applied. Followup data for 81 patients (80.2%) were available. The mean duration of schizophrenia at followup was 9.5 +/- 2.2 years. Assessment of the highest level of adaptive functioning revealed very good or good outcome in 19.8 percent of the patients, fair or poor outcome in 38.2 percent, and very poor outcome and gross impairment in 42.0 percent. Premorbid adjustment was the best predictor of outcome in our schizophrenia sample. A poor prognosis was found in patients with premorbid developmental delays and those who were introverted and withdrawn before their psychotic state.

0 Followers
 · 
90 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While clozapine is the acknowledged superior pharmacotherapeutic for the treatment of schizophrenia, the side effect profile, which includes potentially fatal complications, limits its usefulness. Central administration of clozapine directly into the brain could circumvent many of the side effect issues due to the dramatic reduction in dose and the limitation of the drug primarily to the CNS. The present study demonstrates that clozapine can be formulated as a stable solution at physiological pH, which does not have in vitro neurotoxic effects at concentrations which may be effective at treating symptoms. Acute central administration improved auditory gating deficits in a mouse model of schizophrenia-like deficits. Assessment of behavioral alterations in rats receiving chronic central infusions of clozapine via osmotic minipump was performed with the open field and elevated plus mazes. Neither paradigm revealed any detrimental effects of the infusion. While these data represent only an initial investigation, they none-the-less suggest that central administration of clozapine may be a viable alternate therapeutic approach for schizophrenia patients which may be effective in symptom reduction without causing behavioral or neurotoxic effects.
    Schizophrenia Research 04/2008; 100(1-3):86-96. DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2007.10.012 · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Attending college can be a stressful time for many students. In addition to coping with academic pressure, some students have to deal with the stressful tasks of separation and individuation from their family of origin while some may have to attend to numerous work and family responsibilities. In this context, many college students experience the first onset of mental health and substance use problems or an exacerbation of their symptoms. Given the uniqueness of college students, there is a need to outline critical issues to consider when working with this population. In this commentary, first, the prevalence of psychiatric and substance use problems in college students and the significance of assessing age of onset of current psychopathology are described. Then, the concerning persistent nature of mental health problems among college students and its implications are summarized. Finally, important aspects of treatment to consider when treating college students with mental health problems are outlined, such as the importance of including parents in the treatment, communicating with other providers, and employing of technology to increase adherence. It is concluded that, by becoming familiar with the unique problems characteristic of the developmental stage and environment college students are in, practitioners will be able to better serve them.
    Academic Psychiatry 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s40596-014-0205-9 · 0.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There were few studies on the outcome of schizophrenia in developing countries. Whether the outcome is similar to or different from developed world is still a point for research. The main aim of the current study was to know if patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from start of the illness or not. Other aims included investigation of possible predictors and associated factors with remission and outcome. The study prospectively investigated a group of 56 patients with onset of psychosis during childhood or adolescence. Diagnosis made according to DSM-IV criteria and included; schizophrenia, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified and acute psychosis. Severity of psychosis was measured by PANSS. Measures of the outcome included; remission criteria of Andreasen et al 2005, the children's global assessment scale and educational level. Analysis of data was done for only 37 patients. Thirty patients diagnosed as schizophrenia and 7 with Psychotic disorder not otherwise specified. Mean duration of follow up was 38.4 +/- 16.9 months. At the end of the study, 6 patients (16.2%) had one episode, 23 (62.1%) had multiple episodes and 8 (21.6%) continuous course. Nineteen patients (51.4%) achieved full remission, and only 11 (29.7%) achieved their average educational level for their age. Twenty seven percent of the sample had good outcome and 24.3% had poor outcome. Factors associated with non remission and poor outcome included gradual onset, low IQ, poor premorbid adjustment, negative symptoms at onset of the illness and poor adherence to drugs. Moreover, there was tendency of negative symptoms at illness start to predict poor outcome. Some patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from the start of the illness. Although remission is a difficult target in childhood psychosis, it is still achievable.
    Behavioral and Brain Functions 07/2011; 7(1):28. DOI:10.1186/1744-9081-7-28 · 2.00 Impact Factor

Preview