Role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in osteoblastic cells.
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress is known to induce cell death in a wide variety of cell types, apparently by modulating intracellular signaling pathways. However, the underlying mechanism by which oxidants induce cell death remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamilies in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death of osteoblastic cells. H2O2 resulted in a time- and dose-dependent cell death, which was, in part, attributed to apoptosis. H2O2-induced cell death was prevented by iron chelator, hydroxyl radical scavengers. But H2O2-induced cell death was not affected by 3-aminobenzamide, an inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activation. H2O2 treatment caused a transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), followed by sustained activation. Cell death induced by H2O2 was prevented by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK upstream kinase MEK1/2. But H2O2 induced a transient activation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) without sustained activation and inhibitors of these kinses were not effective in preventing the cell death. H2O2 increased Bax expression and produced hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and its effect was prevented by PD98059. The ERK activation and cell death induced by H2O2 were not dependent on the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor. Taken together, these findings suggest that the ERK signaling pathway plays an active role in mediating H2O2-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and functions upstream of mitochondria-dependent pathway to initiate the apoptotic signal.
Article: Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in MDBK cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our efforts to identify the cellular signaling cascades triggered by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in MDBK cells revealed marked activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK). Enhanced phosphorylation of ERK was detected following infection with cytopathogenic (cp) BVDV, but not with noncytopathogenic BVDV. It appears that cp BVDV-induced ERK phosphorylation is caused by oxidative stress, because ERK phosphorylation was inducible by treatment with hydrogen peroxide or serum deprivation and was attenuated by addition of antioxidants. These results indicate that BVDV infection influences the ERK signaling pathway via oxidative stress, depending on the biotype.Archives of Virology 08/2009; 154(9):1499-503. · 2.11 Impact Factor
Article: Over-expression of JunB inhibits mitochondrial stress and cytotoxicity in human lymphoma cells exposed to chronic oxidative stress.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Activator protein-1 can induce either cell survival or death, which is controlled by opposing effects of different Jun members. It is generally accepted that c-Jun is pro-apoptotic, but that JunD is anti-apoptotic in stress-exposed cells. Additionally, although there are reports suggesting that JunB plays a protective role, its role in stress-induced apoptosis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of JunB in H(2)O(2)-induced cell death using cells that over-expressed the protein or were transfected with si-JunB. Inhibition of JunB expression accelerated H(2)O(2)-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytotoxicity. Conversely, over-expression of JunB protein led to significant inhibition of the MMP loss and cell death. The increase in JunB expression also attenuated nuclear relocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and mitochondrial Bcl-2 reduction that occurred following H(2)O(2) exposure. These results suggest that JunB can signal survival against oxidant-mediated cell death by suppressing mitochondrial stress. [BMB reports 2010; 43(1): 57-61].BMB reports 01/2010; 43(1):57-61. · 1.72 Impact Factor
Article: Role of ERK signaling in the neuroprotective efficacy of magnesium sulfate treatment during focal cerebral ischemia in the gerbil cortex.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) ameliorates focal ischemia-induced neuronal death in the rat and gerbil models. However, the molecular mechanisms for this neuroprotection are not known. Focal cerebral ischemia was produced by unilateral occlusion of the right common carotid artery and the right middle cerebral artery (CCAO + MCAO) for 30 min or 60 min. Treatment with MgSO4 significantly increased the level of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 both in the non-ischemic (contralateral) and ischemic (ipsilateral) cortex. However, these effects were reversed by administration of U0126, a MEK kinase inhibitor. In the ipsilateral cortex, a significant increase in the level of the proapoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, BNIP3 and activated caspase 3 were detected at the end of focal ischemia compared to the non-ischemic cortex. Treatment of MgSO4 prevented these ischemia-induced activations of the death cascade. Collectively, these data indicate that the ERK-CREB-Bcl-2 signaling pathway might be involved in MgSO4-induced neuroprotection following focal ischemia. Moreover, MgSO4 treatment also resulted in a reduction in pro-apoptotic proteins. These results enhance our understanding on the role of MgSO4 in treating cerebral ischemia.The Chinese journal of physiology 10/2010; 53(5):299-309. · 0.56 Impact Factor