Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey on the frequency of violent behavior in individuals with psychiatric disorders.
ABSTRACT Previous studies using probability samples have found a noticeable, but small association between violence and psychiatric disorder. In this article, we analyze data from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) to further examine this question. Psychiatric diagnosis of survey responses was based on a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The NCS study also included items that permitted self-report of violent behaviors in the past year. People with 12-month diagnoses of anxiety disorders, dysthymia and major depression were three to four times more likely to admit violent behaviors than those with no disorders. People with bipolar disorder or drug and alcohol abuse were eight times more likely to report violent behaviors. People with co-occurring non-substance and substance abuse disorders were more likely to report violence than those with only non-abuse disorders. Adjusting violence rates by population base rates shows demographics including ethnicity and gender to be a better predictor of violent behavior than psychiatric diagnosis. The NCS findings approximate those in other probability studies and echo the conclusions of the 1996 Consensus Statement by Advocates and Researchers on violence and mental illness; namely, mental illness is only a weak predictor of violent behavior.
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ABSTRACT: We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses.03/2013; 209(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.02.013
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ABSTRACT: For over two decades, theorists have suggested that mania relates to heightened sensitivity of the behavioral activation system (BAS). In this article, we review a burgeoning empirical literature on this model, drawing on both cross-sectional and prospective studies. As evidence has emerged for this model, we argue that it is time to consider more specific aspects of BAS sensitivity in this disorder. We review evidence that bipolar disorder relates to an increased willingness to expend effort toward reward and to increases in energy and goal pursuit after an initial reward. We conclude by considering the strengths and weaknesses of this literature, with an eye toward future directions and implications for treatment.Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 04/2011; 8:243-67. DOI:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032511-143148 · 12.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present article is an analysis based on scientific articles from internet sources such as SciELO, PubMed and Web of Science, between 1998 and 2008. For the search, the keywords used were: violence, drug dependence, mental disturbances and prisoners, in order to produce this review and discuss the data. A total of 408 articles were found, of which 60 were considered suitable for this discussion and 23 books were also found related to this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between violence, drug abuse and mental disturbances in male prisoners. The results showed that drug abuse is an important risk factor in engendering violence and that mental disturbances often go hand in hand with aggressive behavior. It may be concluded that violence and drug dependence in prisoners are directly interrelated.Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas) 12/2010; 27(4):545-552. DOI:10.1590/S0103-166X2010000400012