Gd-EOB-DTPA Enhanced MRI for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Enhancement in Hepatobiliary Phase

Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University Kasumigaura Hospital, 3-20-1 Aminachi-chuo, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0395, Japan.
Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences (Impact Factor: 1.48). 02/2005; 4(1):1-9. DOI: 10.2463/mrms.4.1
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the quantitative evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and dysplastic nodules in the hepatobiliary phase.
The subjects comprised 12 patients with 27 lesions (22 HCCs and 5 dysplastic nodules). Chemical-shift-selective fat-suppressed T1-weighted sequences were obtained before and 10, 20, and 40 min after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Quantitative analyses were performed with the enhancement ratio of the lesion and the contrast-to-noise (C/N) ratio.
The enhancement ratios of the HCCs were 44.0+/-36.5, 44.7+/-46.8, and 47.7+/-52.8 (%) at 10, 20, and 40 min, respectively, after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA. The enhancement ratios of the dysplastic nodules were 36.2+/-34.3, 44.3+/-37.3, and 40.1+/-46.8 (%). The C/N ratios of the HCCs were 0.2+/-6.6 for the precontrast image, and -9.2+/-12.6, -9.9+/-14.8, and -12.7+/-15.7 at 10, 20, and 40 min, respectively, after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA. The C/N ratios of the dysplastic nodules were 1.4+/-8.0, -13.7+/-11.1, -13.3+/-7.6, and -13.1+/-10.4. No significant differences were found between the HCCs and the dysplastic nodules in the enhancement ratio and the C/N ratio. Only two HCCs showed a positive C/N ratio value, and these HCCs were pathologically confirmed to be a well differentiated and a moderately differentiated carcinoma, respectively.
HCCs and some of the dysplastic nodules showed hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. No specific enhancement was observed, regardless of tumor differentiation.

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    • "It has been shown that HCCs appear hypointens in HP images – most likely due to the down-regulation of OATP1 and the increased expression of MRP2 –, even though they lack the characteristic enhancement features of HCCs in early dynamic phases, for instance, due to the persistent portal venous blood supply in early HCC [23], [24]. Thus, Gd-EOB-DTPA might help differentiate small HCCs from dysplastic nodules and pseudovascular lesions, which do not commonly show hypointensity during the HP [25], [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The objective was to investigate the dynamic enhancement patterns in focal solid liver lesions after the administration of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) by means of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including hepatobiliary phase (HP) images 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. Materials and Methods Non-enhanced T1/T2-weighted as well as dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) images during the arterial phase (AP), the portal venous phase (PVP), the late phase (LP), and the HP (20 min) were obtained from 83 patients (54 male, 29 female, mean age 62.01 years) with focal solid liver lesions. MRI was conducted by means of a 1.5-T system for 63 patients with malignant liver lesions (HCCs: n = 34, metastases: n = 29) and for 20 patients with benign liver lesions (FNH lesions: n = 14, hemangiomas: n = 3, adenomas: n = 3). For quantitative analysis, signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), contrast enhancement ratios (CER), lesion-to-liver contrast ratios (LLC), and signal intensity (SI) ratios were measured. Results The SNR of liver parenchyma significantly increased in each dynamic phase after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration compared to the SNR of non-enhanced images (p<0.001). The CER of HCCs and metastases significantly decreased between LP and HP images (p = 0.0011, p<0.0001). However, FNH lesions did not show any significant difference, whereas an increased CER was found in hemangiomas. The mean LLCs of FNH lesions were significantly higher than those of HCCs and metastases. The LLC values of hemangiomas remained negative during the entire time course, whereas the LLC of adenomas indicated hyperintensity from the AP to the LP. Furthermore, adenomas showed hypointensity in HP images. Conclusion Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI may help diagnose focal solid liver lesions by evaluating their enhancement patterns.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100315. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100315 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Depending on the tumor vascularity, some tumors may enhance stronger and some may enhance weaker than normal liver parenchyma as also known for gadolinium chelates (Figures 3 and 4).53,54 Gadoxetic acid has the potential capacity for the concurrent assessment of vascularity of HCC and hepatocellular-specific properties within the tumor.55 "
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    ABSTRACT: The value of cross-sectional liver imaging is evaluated by the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the specific imaging technique. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a key technique for the characterization and detection of focal and diffuse liver disease. More recently, gadoxetic acid, the hepatocyte-specific MR contrast agent, was clinically approved and introduced in many countries. Gadoxetic acid may be considered a "molecular imaging" probe because the compound is actively taken into hepatocytes via the ATP-dependent organic anion transport system in the plasma membrane for the hepatic uptake. The transport of gadoxetic acid from the cytoplasm to the bile is mainly determined by the capacity of the transport protein glutathione-S-transferase. Gadoxetic acid enhances hepatocyte-containing lesions and improves detection of lesions devoid of normal hepatocytes, such as metastases. Innovative rapid MR acquisition techniques with near isotropic 3D pulse sequences with fat saturation parallel the technical progress made by multidetector computed tomography combined with an impressive improvement in tumor-liver contrast when used for gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the development, clinical testing, and applications of this novel MR contrast agent.
    Biologics: Targets & Therapy 08/2010; 4:199-212. DOI:10.2147/BTT.S6479
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    • "These latter nodules are difficult to evaluate in dynamic studies with Gd-DTPA. No significant quantitative difference is observed between HCCs and dysplastic nodules in terms of the enhancement ratios and the contrast-to-noise ratio [6]. A combination of CTA and CTAP, as well as SPIO-enhanced MRI, has been conducted to distinguish between these two entities [7,8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We describe an 8-mm hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis in a 74-year-old woman. Ultrasound (US) revealed an 8-mm hyperechoic nodule in segment 6 of the liver. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and US revealed no hypervascularity in the early phase and no washout in the late phase and the Kupffer phase, respectively. CT during arteriography revealed no hypervascularity and CT during arterial portography disclosed no perfusion defect. Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed no hypervascularity in the early phase, but disclosed a defect in the hepatobiliary phase. Histologically, the nodule was diagnosed as well-differentiated HCC characterized by more than two-fold the cellularity of the non-tumorous area, with a high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia, fatty change, and slight cell atypia with an irregular thin trabecular pattern. Our case demonstrates the utility of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of small HCC.
    Case Reports in Gastroenterology 07/2009; 3(2):187-192. DOI:10.1159/000226608
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