The relationship between qualified personnel and self-reported implementation of recommended physical education practices and programs in U.S. schools.
ABSTRACT The authors analyzed data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 to assess the associations between the presence of a district physical education coordinator and district-level physical education policies and practices recommended by federal government agencies and national organizations. The authors also examined the relationship between teacher qualifications and staff development related to physical education and self-reported implementation of recommended teachingpractices. District-level data were collected by self-administered mail questionnaires from a nationally representative sample of school districts. Classroom-level data were collected by computer-assisted personal interviews with teachers of randomly selected classes in elementary schools and randomly selected required physical education courses in middle/junior high and senior high schools. Nearly two thirds (62.2%) of districts had a physical education coordinator, and those were generally more likely than other districts to report having policies and practices that corresponded with national recommendations for high-quality physical education programs. More than two thirds of teachers (66.9%) met the criteria for teacher qualifications based on their education and certification. These teachers were more likely than others to report use of certain recommended physical education teaching practices. Teachers who participated in staff development also were more likely to use recommended teaching practices in their classrooms. Using a district physical education coordinator and teachers with appropriate qualifications as well as offering staff development opportunities on physical education may enhance school physical education programs.
SourceAvailable from: educationcounts.govt.nz
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Research supports the position that specialists are the preferred providers of physical education in elementary (primary) school settings. We examined whether specialists delivered more physical education lessons and provided greater opportunities for moderate and vigorous physical activity and whether barriers to curricular and extracurricular physical activity opportunities in Ontario elementary schools differed for specialist and nonspecialist teachers. Using a cross-sectional design, a questionnaire was mailed to key informants in 599 randomly selected elementary schools in Ontario, yielding an 85% response rate. Most physical education in Ontario elementary schools is delivered by nonspecialists (63%). No self-reported differences were found between specialists and generalist teachers in the number of physical education lessons delivered per week, the Guy Faulkner is an associate professor in the Faculty of Physical Education and Health. His research primarily examines the relationship between participation in physical activity and mental health. John Dwyer is an associate professor in the Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition. His research interest is in promotion of physical activity. Hyacinth Irving is a research methods specialist for social policy and prevention research in the Public Health and Regulatory Policy Department in the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Kenneth Allison is Principal of KR Allison Research Consulting. He also holds an appointment as associate professor in the Department of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine. Edward Adlaf is a research scientist in the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) and an associate professor in the Department of Public Health Sciences and Psychiatry. Jack Goodman is an associate professor of exercise physiology in the Faculty of Physical Education and Health. His research primarily examines cardiac physiology during exercise, but he also maintains an interest in physical activity and youth and the quality and quantity of physical education as they affect health outcomes and long-term adherence to a healthy lifestyle.