The authors analyzed data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 to assess the associations between the presence of a district physical education coordinator and district-level physical education policies and practices recommended by federal government agencies and national organizations. The authors also examined the relationship between teacher qualifications and staff development related to physical education and self-reported implementation of recommended teachingpractices. District-level data were collected by self-administered mail questionnaires from a nationally representative sample of school districts. Classroom-level data were collected by computer-assisted personal interviews with teachers of randomly selected classes in elementary schools and randomly selected required physical education courses in middle/junior high and senior high schools. Nearly two thirds (62.2%) of districts had a physical education coordinator, and those were generally more likely than other districts to report having policies and practices that corresponded with national recommendations for high-quality physical education programs. More than two thirds of teachers (66.9%) met the criteria for teacher qualifications based on their education and certification. These teachers were more likely than others to report use of certain recommended physical education teaching practices. Teachers who participated in staff development also were more likely to use recommended teaching practices in their classrooms. Using a district physical education coordinator and teachers with appropriate qualifications as well as offering staff development opportunities on physical education may enhance school physical education programs.
"DeCorby et al., 2005; Malina et al., 2004; Sallis et al., 1997) have highlighted the importance of children being taught by PE specialists, citing higher levels of motor performance, physical activity levels, fitness, academic achievement and adherence to physical activity throughout adolescence as some key outcomes. According to Davis et al. (2004), qualified PE personnel are more likely to use recommended teaching practices and achieve programme outcomes than nonqualified personnel. If there were so many non-PE specialists teaching PE in the primary schools, the question is whether the children's holistic development through PE is being adequately addressed. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the provision of physical education (PE) in Singapore. Singapore is a small island city state of approximately 699 square kilometres with a population of about 4 million people. This article aims to highlight the current status of PE in Singapore schools and compare it against suggested international standards and recommendations. From questionnaires distributed to every school on a voluntary basis, 164 Heads of Department (HODs) from 78 primary schools, 74 secondary schools and 12 junior colleges, and 474 teachers from 170 schools responded. The findings from these questionnaires focused on the impact of facilities, staffing, timetabling, curriculum time and status, on the provision of PE. In relation to the international context, Singapore faces similar constraints such as inadequate facilities and equipment, and insufficient allocation of time. The study makes a strong case for the improved status and function of PE in schools but three main issues require further attention: (i) primary schools are disadvantaged by staffing issues and general provision; (ii) PE lessons are both inadequate in number and duration to achieve the ‘desired outcomes’ of the PE syllabus; and (iii) class sizes are considered too large for meaningful learning to occur, resulting in teachers prioritising management issues. When these issues are addressed and their solutions translated into practice, Singapore can actualise the vision of making every student physically educated and achieve a world class standard.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research supports the position that specialists are the preferred providers of physical education in elementary (primary) school settings. We examined whether specialists delivered more physical education lessons and provided greater opportunities for moderate and vigorous physical activity and whether barriers to curricular and extracurricular physical activity opportunities in Ontario elementary schools differed for specialist and nonspecialist teachers. Using a cross-sectional design, a questionnaire was mailed to key informants in 599 randomly selected elementary schools in Ontario, yielding an 85% response rate. Most physical education in Ontario elementary schools is delivered by nonspecialists (63%). No self-reported differences were found between specialists and generalist teachers in the number of physical education lessons delivered per week, the Guy Faulkner is an associate professor in the Faculty of Physical Education and Health. His research primarily examines the relationship between participation in physical activity and mental health. John Dwyer is an associate professor in the Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition. His research interest is in promotion of physical activity. Hyacinth Irving is a research methods specialist for social policy and prevention research in the Public Health and Regulatory Policy Department in the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Kenneth Allison is Principal of KR Allison Research Consulting. He also holds an appointment as associate professor in the Department of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine. Edward Adlaf is a research scientist in the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) and an associate professor in the Department of Public Health Sciences and Psychiatry. Jack Goodman is an associate professor of exercise physiology in the Faculty of Physical Education and Health. His research primarily examines cardiac physiology during exercise, but he also maintains an interest in physical activity and youth and the quality and quantity of physical education as they affect health outcomes and long-term adherence to a healthy lifestyle.
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