Orbitofrontal Cortex, Associative Learning, and Expectancies

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 20 Penn Street, HSF-2 S251, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.
Neuron (Impact Factor: 15.05). 10/2005; 47(5):633-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.07.018
Source: PubMed


Orbitofrontal cortex is characterized by its unique pattern of connections with subcortical areas, such as basolateral amygdala. Here we distinguish between the critical role of these areas in associative learning and the pivotal contribution of OFC to the manipulation of this information to control behavior. This contribution reflects the ability of OFC to signal the desirability of expected outcomes, which requires the integration of associative information with information concerning internal states and goals in representational memory.

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Available from: Geoffrey Schoenbaum, Feb 03, 2014
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    • "Experiments were performed in a behavioral chamber previously described (Schoenbaum and Roesch, 2005). We performed daily screening of active wires, and advanced the electrode assembly by ∼80 µm per day at the end of the recording session to record from a different neuronal population. "
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to properly adjust behavioral responses to cues in a changing environment is crucial for survival. Activity in the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) is thought to both represent rules to guide behavior as well as detect and resolve conflicts between rules in changing contingencies. However, while lesion and pharmacological studies have supported a crucial role for mPFC in this type of set-shifting, an understanding of how mPFC represents current rules or detects and resolves conflict between different rules is unclear. Here, we directly address the role of rat mPFC in shifting rule based behavioral strategies using a novel behavioral task designed to tease apart neural signatures of rules, conflict and direction. We demonstrate that activity of single neurons in rat mPFC represent distinct rules. Further, we show increased firing on high conflict trials in a separate population of mPFC neurons. Reduced firing in both populations of neurons was associated with poor performance. Moreover, activity in both populations increased and decreased firing during the outcome epoch when reward was and was not delivered on correct and incorrect trials, respectively. In addition, outcome firing was modulated by the current rule and the degree of conflict associated with the previous decision. These results promote a greater understanding of the role that mPFC plays in switching between rules, signaling both rule and conflict to promote improved behavioral performance.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 11/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00266 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    • "The OFC has been reported to play two primary roles that have potential relevance to the current task: Together with the inferior frontal gyrus, the anterior insula, the superior temporal cortex and the temporoparietal junction, the OFC is part of the ventral attention network, acting as a bottom-up saliency detection system determining subjective and contextdependent susceptibility to unexpected salient stimuli (Corbetta et al., 2008; Vossel et al., 2014; Weissman and Prado, 2012). The OFC was also found to be involved in the processing of reward-related information (Schoenbaum and Roesch, 2005; Pauli et al., 2012). It is suggested that the OFC is involved in monitoring which recent actions were rewarded, and predicting which future actions are most likely to be rewarded (Kahnt et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Finding neurobiological markers for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is a major objective of clinicians and neuroscientists. We examined if functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from few distinct visuospatial working memory (VSWM) tasks enables accurately detecting cases with ADHD. We tested 20 boys with ADHD combined type and 20 typically developed (TD) boys in four VSWM tasks that differed in feedback availability (feedback, no-feedback) and reward size (large, small). We used a multimodal analysis based on brain activity in 16 regions of interest, significantly activated or deactivated in the four VSWM tasks (based on the entire participants' sample). Dimensionality of the data was reduced into 10 principal components that were used as the input variables to a logistic regression classifier. fMRI data from the four VSWM tasks enabled a classification accuracy of 92.5%, with high predicted ADHD probability values for most clinical cases, and low predicted ADHD probabilities for most TDs. This accuracy level was higher than those achieved by using the fMRI data of any single task, or the respective behavioral data. This indicates that task-based fMRI data acquired while participants perform a few distinct VSWM tasks enables improved detection of clinical cases.
    Clinical neuroimaging 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2015.08.015 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Experiments were performed in a behavioural chamber previously described (Schoenbaum & Roesch, 2005). We performed daily screening of wires, and advanced the electrode assembly ~80 lm [~4–5 times the average diameter (15 lm) of a striatal medium spiny neuron] at the end of each recording session to record from a different neuronal population. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive flexibility is a hallmark of prefrontal cortical (PFC) function yet little is known about downstream area involvement. The medial dorsal striatum (mDS) receives major projections from the PFC and is uniquely situated to perform the integration of responses with rule information. In this study, we use a novel rule shifting task in rats that mirrors non-human primate and human studies in its temporal precision and counterbalanced responses. We record activity from single neurons in the mDS while rats switch between different rules for reward. Additionally, we pharmacologically inactivate mDS by infusion of a baclofen/muscimol cocktail. Inactivation of mDS impaired the ability to shift to a new rule and an increased in the number of regressive errors. While recording in mDS, we identified neurons modulated by direction whose activity reflected the conflict between competing rule information. We show that a subset of these neurons was also rule selective, and that the conflict between competing rule cues was resolved as behavioral performance improved. Other neurons were modulated by rule, but not direction. These neurons became selective before behavior performance accurately reflected the current rule. These data provide an additional locus for investigating the mechanisms underlying behavioral flexibility. Converging lines of evidence from multiple human psychiatric disorders have implicated dorsal striatum as an important and understudied neural substrate of flexible cognition. Our data confirms the importance of mDS, and suggests a mechanism by which mDS mediates abstract cognition functions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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