Lack of JunD promotes pressure overload-induced apoptosis, hypertrophic growth, and angiogenesis in the heart
ABSTRACT The Jun family of activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors (c-Jun, JunB, and JunD) is involved in fundamental biological processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, tumor angiogenesis, and hypertrophy. The role of individual AP-1 transcription factors in the stressed heart is not clear. In the present study we analyzed the role of JunD in survival, hypertrophy, and angiogenesis in the pressure-overloaded mouse heart after thoracic aortic constriction.
Mice lacking JunD (knockout [KO]) showed increased mortality and enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and fibrosis associated with increased levels of hypoxia-induced factor-1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), p53, and Bax protein and reduced levels of Bcl-2 protein after 7 days of severe pressure overload compared with wild-type (WT) siblings. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in surviving KO mice was enhanced compared with that in WT mice. Chronic moderate pressure overload for 12 weeks caused enhanced left ventricular hypertrophy in KO mice, and survival and interstitial fibrosis were comparable with WT mice. Cardiac function, 12 weeks after operation, was comparable among shams and pressure-overloaded mice of both genotypes. In addition, KO mice exposed to chronic pressure overload showed higher cardiac capillary density associated with increased protein levels of VEGF.
Thus, JunD limits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and protects the pressure-overloaded heart from cardiac apoptosis. These beneficial effects of JunD, however, are associated with antiangiogenic properties.
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ABSTRACT: Background-Increasing evidence suggests a critical role for mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) in protection against cardiac injuries; however, the downstream cytosolic actions of this enzyme are largely undefined. Methods and Results-Proteomic analysis identified a significant downregulation of mitochondrial ALDH2 in the heart of a rat heart failure model after myocardial infarction. The mechanistic insights underlying ALDH2 action were elucidated using murine models overexpressing ALDH2 or its mutant or with the ablation of the ALDH2 gene (ALDH2 knockout) and neonatal cardiomyocytes undergoing altered expression and activity of ALDH2. Left ventricle dilation and dysfunction and cardiomyocyte death after myocardial infarction were exacerbated in ALDH2-knockout or ALDH2 mutant-overexpressing mice but were significantly attenuated in ALDH2-overexpressing mice. Using an anoxia model of cardiomyocytes with deficiency in ALDH2 activities, we observed prominent cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased accumulation of the reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). We subsequently examined the impacts of mitochondrial ALDH2 and 4-HNE on the relevant cytosolic protective pathways. Our data documented 4-HNE-stimulated p53 upregulation via the phosphorylation of JNK, accompanying increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis that was attenuated by inhibition of p53. Importantly, elevation of 4-HNE also triggered a reduction of the cytosolic HSP70, further corroborating cytosolic action of the 4-HNE instigated by downregulation of mitochondrial ALDH2. Conclusions-Downregulation of ALDH2 in the mitochondria induced an elevation of 4-HNE, leading to cardiomyocyte apoptosis by subsequent inhibition of HSP70, phosphorylation of JNK, and activation of p53. This chain of molecular events took place in both the mitochondria and the cytosol, contributing to the mechanism underlying heart failure.Journal of the American Heart Association 09/2014; 3(5). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.113.000779 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases cause more mortality and morbidity worldwide than any other diseases. Although many intracellular signaling pathways influence cardiac physiology and pathology, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family has garnered significant attention because of its vast implications in signaling and cross-talk with other signaling networks. The extensively studied MAPKs ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and ERK5, demonstrate unique intracellular signaling mechanisms, responding to a myriad of mitogens and stressors and influencing the signaling of cardiac development, metabolism, performance, and pathogenesis. Definitive relationships between MAPK signaling and cardiac dysfunction remain elusive, despite 30 years of extensive clinical studies and basic research of various animal/cell models, severities of stress, and types of stimuli. Still, several studies have proven the importance of MAPK cross-talk with mitochondria, powerhouses of the cell that provide over 80% of ATP for normal cardiomyocyte function and play a crucial role in cell death. Although many questions remain unanswered, there exists enough evidence to consider the possibility of targeting MAPK-mitochondria interactions in the prevention and treatment of heart disease. The goal of this review is to integrate previous studies into a discussion of MAPKs and MAPK-mitochondria signaling in cardiac diseases, such as myocardial infarction (ischemia), hypertrophy and heart failure. A comprehensive understanding of relevant molecular mechanisms, as well as challenges for studies in this area, will facilitate the development of new pharmacological agents and genetic manipulations for therapy of cardiovascular diseases.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.05.013 · 7.75 Impact Factor