Analysis of the risk factors for the development of post-operative spinal epidural haematoma
ABSTRACT In order to identify the risk factors and the incidence of post-operative spinal epidural haematoma, we analysed the records of 14 932 patients undergoing spinal surgery between 1984 and 2002. Of these, 32 (0.2%) required re-operation within one week of the initial procedure and had an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 code for haematoma complicating a procedure (998.12). As controls, we selected those who had undergone a procedure of equal complexity by the same surgeon but who had not developed this complication. Risks identified before operation were older than 60 years of age, the use of pre-operative non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and Rh-positive blood type. Those during the procedure were involvement of more than five operative levels, a haemoglobin < 10 g/dL, and blood loss > 1 L, and after operation an international normalised ratio > 2.0 within the first 48 hours. All these were identified as significant (p < 0.03). Well-controlled anticoagulation and the use of drains were not associated with an increased risk of post-operative spinal epidural haematoma.
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ABSTRACT: Objective. Post-operative extradural hematoma (EDH) is a relatively common complication in patients undergoing intracranial operations. The risk factors associated with the occurrence of EDH are not well described in the literature. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors and the incidence of post-operative EDH adjacent and regional to the craniotomy or the craniectomy site. Method. This was a retrospective study of 24 (2.6% of total) patients who underwent extradural hematoma evacuation after primary intracranial supratentorial surgery between January 2005 and December 2011. During this period, 941 intracranial operations were performed. The control group (72 patients) was selected on the basis of having undergone the same pre-operative diagnosis and treatment within 2 months of the operations for the 24 hematoma patients. The Glasgow Coma Scale score and operation character (emergency or elective) of the hematoma and control group were individually matched to minimize pre-operative conditional bias. The ages of both groups were individually matched with similar ages within 10 years of each other to minimize age bias. Result. Univariate analysis showed that the significant pre-operative and intra-operative factors associated with post-operative EDH were an intra-operative blood loss of greater than 800 mL (p = 0.007), maximal craniotomy length of greater than or equal to 100 mm (p = 0.001), and craniotomy area of greater than or equal to 71.53 cm(2) (p = 0.018). In multivariate analysis, intra-operative blood loss exceeding 800 mL (median of total patients) placed a patient at significantly increased risk for post-operative EDH. Conclusion. The data did not examine established risk factors for post-operative hematoma, such as thrombocytopenia, anti-coagulant and anti-platelet therapy, and a history of heavy alcohol consumption and/or tobacco intake. Recognizing the limitations of the study, large intra-operative blood loss and wide craniotomy area are implicated with an increased risk of post-operative EDH after intracranial surgery.British Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2014; 8(2):1-6. DOI:10.3109/02688697.2014.967749 · 0.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: STUDY DESIGN:: A laboratory investigation using porcine model. OBJECTIVE:: To clarify the effectiveness of the soft coagulation system for stopping bleeding from the epidural vein using different outputs and the safety in terms of tissue damage including spinal cord injury. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: Problems associated with coagulation using an electrosurgical device, such as carbonization of tissue or adhesion to the electrode, have been highlighted. So called "soft coagulation" has been developed to solve these problems. Its' utility as well as the safety of the neural structure in spine surgery has never been reported. METHODS:: A total of 3 animals and 45 spinal segments were used. Total laminectomy was performed to expose the dural tube and epidural venous plexus. Stable bleeding was induced by a 22 G needle puncture. Soft coagulation monopolar output (SCM), soft coagulation bipolar output (SCB), and conventional bipolar output (CB) were used as the coagulators. Valid hemostasis was defined as macroscopically complete bleeding stoppage by coagulation within 3 minutes. The neurological assessment was evaluated by somatosensory evoked potential. Histologic analysis was performed to determine the area of thermal damage. RESULTS:: Valid hemostasis ratio was 75.0% of SCM group, 68.8% of SCB group, and 30.8% of CB group. Somatosensory evoked potential monitoring revealed that spinal cord injury was observed in 4 lesions (25%) of the SCM group. Neither bipolar groups (SCB and CB) showed any changes in waveform pattern. Histologic analysis revealed that severe thermal damages were observed in the epidural space of the SCM group. CONCLUSIONS:: The usefulness of soft coagulation is revealed in terms of bleeding stoppage from epidural vessels and reduced soft-tissue damage compared with the conventional electric device. However, assessing the potential risk of severe neural tissue damage including spinal cord injury, a bipolar soft coagulation is strongly recommended for use in spine surgery.Journal of spinal disorders & techniques 02/2013; DOI:10.1097/BSD.0b013e31828677f9 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Study Design Case report. Objective The objective of this study was to present the unusual case of a 59-year-old woman with a reoccurring sterile postoperative seroma. Methods A patient was observed postoperatively for any complications or adverse side effects resulting from an initial multilevel anterior/posterior lumbar fusion surgery where 2 g (1 g combined with the bone graft used for posterolateral fusion and 1 g placed in the soft tissues) of prophylactic vancomycin powder was placed within the soft tissues posteriorly before wound closure. The patient's progress was monitored through 6 months following the initial procedure. Six weeks postoperatively, the patient sustained a fall and had increased pain. Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and X-rays demonstrated a displaced sacral fracture, a large epidural fluid collection, and severe compression of the thecal sac at the lumbar operative sites (L3-5). Results On the basis of the aforementioned imaging studies and the patient's progressive neurologic deficit, it was apparent at the 6-week follow-up that emergent surgical intervention was necessary. Drainage and examination of an epidural fluid collection along with treatment of a displaced sacral fracture (S1-S2) were performed. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course with resolution of her back pain and neurologic deficit; however, recurrence of the epidural fluid collection requiring serial aspirations confounded the patients' clinical presentation. Conclusions With the recurrent nature of the seroma being unusual, the cause of the fluid collection and formation is undetermined. With lack of bone morphogenetic protein usage, and few confounding variables accountable, an acute allergic response to topical vancomycin powder is a possible etiology. Analysis with larger patient populations comparing postoperative adverse effects of prophylactic vancomycin powder is recommended.10/2014; 5(2):127-33. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1386754