Ezrin controls the macromolecular complexes formed between an adapter protein Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.
ABSTRACT Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) is an adapter protein that is responsible for organizing a number of cell receptors and channels. NHERF contains two amino-terminal PDZ (postsynaptic density 95/disk-large/zonula occluden-1) domains that bind to the cytoplasmic domains of a number of membrane channels or receptors. The carboxyl terminus of NHERF interacts with the FERM domain (a domain shared by protein 4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin) of a family of actin-binding proteins, ezrin-radixin-moesin. NHERF was shown previously to be capable of enhancing the channel activities of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Here we show that binding of the FERM domain of ezrin to NHERF regulates the cooperative binding of NHERF to bring two cytoplasmic tails of CFTR into spatial proximity to each other. We find that ezrin binding activates the second PDZ domain of NHERF to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of CFTR (C-CFTR), so as to form a specific 2:1:1 (C-CFTR)(2).NHERF.ezrin ternary complex. Without ezrin binding, the cytoplasmic tail of CFTR only interacts strongly with the first amino-terminal PDZ domain to form a 1:1 C-CFTR.NHERF complex. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting confirm the specific interactions of NHERF with the full-length CFTR and with ezrin in vivo. Because of the concentrated distribution of ezrin and NHERF in the apical membrane regions of epithelial cells and the diverse binding partners for the NHERF PDZ domains, the regulation of NHERF by ezrin may be employed as a general mechanism to assemble channels and receptors in the membrane cytoskeleton.
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ABSTRACT: The lack of functional cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in the apical membranes of CF airway epithelial cells abolishes cAMP-stimulated anion transport, and bacteria, eventually including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bind to and accumulate in the mucus. Flagellin released from P. aeruginosa triggers airway epithelial Toll-like receptor 5 and subsequent NF-kappaB signaling and production and release of proinflammatory cytokines that recruit neutrophils to the infected region. This response has been termed hyperinflammatory because so many neutrophils accumulate; a response that damages CF lung tissue. We first review the contradictory data both for and against the idea that epithelial cells exhibit larger-than-normal proinflammatory signaling in CF compared with non-CF cells and then review proposals that might explain how reduced CFTR function could activate such proinflammatory signaling. It is concluded that apparent exaggerated innate immune response of CF airway epithelial cells may have resulted not from direct effects of CFTR on cellular signaling or inflammatory mediator production but from indirect effects resulting from the absence of CFTRs apical membrane channel function. Thus, loss of Cl-, HCO3-, and glutathione secretion may lead to reduced volume and increased acidification and oxidation of the airway surface liquid. These changes concentrate proinflammatory mediators, reduce mucociliary clearance of bacteria and subsequently activate cellular signaling. Loss of apical CFTR will also hyperpolarize basolateral membrane potentials, potentially leading to increases in cytosolic [Ca2+], intracellular Ca2+, and NF-kappaB signaling. This hyperinflammatory effect of CF on intracellular Ca2+ and NF-kappaB signaling would be most prominently expressed during exposure to both P. aeruginosa and also endocrine, paracrine, or nervous agonists that activate Ca2+ signaling in the airway epithelia.AJP Cell Physiology 09/2006; 291(2):C218-30. · 3.54 Impact Factor
Article: HGF stimulation of Rac1 signaling enhances pharmacological correction of the most prevalent Cystic Fibrosis mutant F508del-CFTR.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF), a major life-limiting genetic disease leading to severe respiratory symptoms, is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride (Cl-) channel expressed at the apical membrane of epithelial cells. Absence of functional CFTR from the surface of respiratory cells reduces mucociliary clearance, promoting airways obstruction, chronic infection and ultimately lung failure. The most frequent mutation, F508del, causes the channel to misfold, triggering its premature degradation and preventing it from reaching the cell surface. Recently, novel small-molecule correctors rescuing plasma membrane localization of F508del-CFTR underwent clinical trials but with limited success. Plausibly, this may be due to the mutant intrinsic plasma membrane (PM) instability. Herein, we show that restoration of F508del-CFTR PM localization by correctors can be dramatically improved through a novel pathway involving stimulation of signaling by the endogenous small GTPase Rac1 via hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We first show that CFTR anchors to apical actin cytoskeleton (via Ezrin) upon activation of Rac1 signaling through PIP5K and Arp2/3. We then found that such anchoring retains pharmacologically rescued F508del-CFTR at the cell surface, boosting functional restoration by correctors up to 30% of wild-type channel levels in human airway epithelial cells. Our findings reveal that surface anchoring and retention is a major target pathway for CF pharmacotherapy, namely to achieve maximal restoration of F508del-CFTR in patients in combination with correctors. Moreover, this approach may also translate to other disorders caused by trafficking-deficient surface proteins.ACS Chemical Biology 11/2012; · 6.45 Impact Factor