Global and regional gray matter reductions in ADHD: a voxel-based morphometric study.
ABSTRACT Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by inattentiveness, motor hyperactivity and impulsivity. According to neuroimaging data, the neural substrate underlying ADHD seems to involve fronto-striatal circuits and the cerebellum. However, there are important discrepancies between various studies, probably due to the use of different techniques. The aim of this study is to examine cerebral gray (GM) and white (WM) matter abnormalities in a group of ADHD children using a voxel-based morphometry protocol. The sample consisted of 25 children/adolescents with DSM-IV TR diagnosis of ADHD (medicated, aged 6-16 years) who were compared with 25 healthy volunteer children/adolescents. ADHD brains on an average showed a global volume decrease of 5.4% as compared to controls. Additionally, there were regionally specific effects in the left fronto-parietal areas (left motor, premotor and somatosensory cortex), left cingulate cortex (anterior/middle/posterior cingulate), parietal lobe (precuneus bilaterally), temporal cortices (right middle temporal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus), and the cerebellum (bilateral posterior). There were no differences in WM volume between ADHD children and control subjects. The results are consistent with previous studies that used different techniques, and may represent a possible neural basis for some of the motor and attentional deficits commonly found in ADHD.
- Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 09/2014; 5(18):3222-3226. · 6.69 Impact Factor
- Acta Neuropsychologica 08/2012; 10(2):163-191.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives : Characteristic symptoms, including hyperactivity and easy distractibility, in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that their brain status, even at rest, might differ from that of healthy children. This study was conducted in order to determine whether resting state brain activity is compromised in medication-naive children with ADHD. Methods : Twenty medication-naive children with ADHD (mean age ) and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (mean age ) underwent measurements for resting state brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Among resting state related-independent components (RSICs) extracted from fMRI data using independent component analysis, a significant difference in RSICs was observed between groups, using a mixed Gaussian/gamma model. Results : Except for IQ, which was higher in the healthy control group, no demographic difference was observed between the two groups (pJournal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 06/2012; 23(2).