HIV type 1 cervicovaginal reservoirs in the era of HAART.
ABSTRACT Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) does not lead to viral eradication, due to HIV-1 residual disease. We investigated whether the cervicovaginal tract serves as a viral reservoir. Seven out of eight cervicovaginal fluids were positive for cell-free HIV-1, by supersensitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR), with a detection limit of 1 copy/ml. No viral outgrowth, intracellular proviral DNA, or viral RNA was detected from cervicovaginal lavage and ecto- and endocervical cells. The cervicovaginal tract of patients on HAART is likely not a major solid tissue reservoir for HIV-1. Nonetheless, the presence of even low cell-free HIV-1 RNA in cervicovaginal secretions continues to suggest the importance of practicing protected sex, even in the era of HAART.
SourceAvailable from: Michelino Di Rosa
Article: Sirtuin-1 and HIV-1: An Overview.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sirtuins are a family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases, which regulate cell survival and energy metabolism, inflammation and cancer. Recent studies have shown that sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) modulates Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 transcription. The HIV-1 Tat protein is a substrate for the deacetylase activity of SIRT1; SIRT1 recycles Tat to its unacetylated form, catalyzing a fundamental step to start new cycles of viral transcription. Moreover, Tat has been reported to promote T-cell hyperactivation by suppressing SIRT1 activity. In fact, Tat blocks the ability of SIRT1 to deacetylate lysine 310 in the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by interacting with the deacetylase domain of SIRT1. This mechanism leads therefore to the hyperactivation of NF-κB proinflammatory pathway and may likely contribute to the chronic immune activation state of HIV-infected individuals. In the present review we first briefly describe the biological functions of sirtuins, then we delineate the interplay between SIRT1 and HIV-1 and discuss the potential role of SIRT1 as a pharmacological target of HIV-1 replication.Current drug targets 04/2013; DOI:10.2174/1389450111314060005 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to contribute to the global burden of disease despite great advances in antiretroviral (ARV) treatment and prophylaxis. In this review, we discuss the proposed mechanisms of MTCT, evidence for cell-free and cell-associated transmission in different routes of MTCT, and the impact of ARVs on virus levels and transmission. Many population-based studies support a role for cell-associated virus in transmission and in vitro studies also provide some support for this mode of transmission. However, animal model studies provide proof-of-principle that cell-free virus can establish infection in infants, and studies of ARVs in HIV-infected pregnant women show a strong correlation with reduction in cell-free virus levels and protection. ARV treatment in MTCT potentially provides opportunities to better define the infectious form of virus, but these studies will require better tools to measure the infectious cell reservoir. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2014; 210(suppl 3):S631-S640. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu344 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected leukocytes have been detected in genital secretions from HIV-infected men and women and may play an important role in the sexual transmission of HIV. However, they have been largely overlooked in studies on mechanisms of HIV transmission and in the design and testing of HIV vaccine and microbicide candidates. This article describes the characteristics and quantities of leukocytes in male and female genital secretions under various conditions and also reviews evidence for the involvement of HIV-infected cells in both horizontal and vertical cell-associated HIV transmission. Additional research is needed in this area to better target HIV prevention strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2014; 210(suppl 3):S609-S615. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu390 · 5.78 Impact Factor