The multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) 4 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter family. Camptothecins (CPTs) have shown substantial anticancer activity against a broad spectrum of tumors by inhibiting DNA topoisomerase I, but tumor resistance is one of the major reasons for therapeutic failure. P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, MRP1, and MRP2 have been implicated in resistance to various CPTs including CPT-11 (irinotecan), SN-38 (the active metabolite of CPT-11), and topotecan. In this study, we explored the resistance profiles and intracellular accumulation of a panel of CPTs including CPT, CPT-11, SN-38, rubitecan, and 10-hydroxy-CPT (10-OH-CPT) in HepG2 cells with stably overexpressed human MRP4. Other anticancer agents such as paclitaxel, cyclophosphamide, and carboplatin were also included.
HepG2 cells were transfected with an empty vehicle plasmid (V/HepG2) or human MRP4 (MRP4/HepG2). The resistance profiles of test drugs in exponentially growing V/HepG2 and MRP4/HepG2 cells were examined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazonium bromide (MTT) assay with 4 or 48 h exposure time of the test drug in the absence or presence of various MRP4 inhibitors. The accumulation of CPT-11, SN-38, and paclitaxel by V/HepG2 and MRP4/HepG2 cells was determined by validated high-performance liquid chromatography methods.
Based on the resistance folds from the MTT assay with 48 h exposure time of the test drug, MRP4 conferred resistance to CPTs tested in the order 10-OH-CPT (14.21) > SN-38 carboxylate (9.70) > rubitecan (9.06) > SN-38 lactone (8.91) > CPT lactone (7.33) > CPT-11 lactone (5.64) > CPT carboxylate (4.30) > CPT-11 carboxylate (2.68). Overall, overexpression of MRP4 increased the IC50 values 1.78- to 14.21-fold for various CPTs in lactone or carboxylate form. The resistance of MRP4 to various CPTs tested was significantly reversed in the presence of dl-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO, a gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor), MK571, celecoxib, or diclofenac (all MRP4 inhibitors). In addition, the accumulation of CPT-11 and SN-38 over 120 min in MRP4/HepG2 cells was significantly reduced compared to V/HepG2 cells, whereas the addition of celecoxib, MK571, or BSO significantly increased their accumulation in MRP4/HepG2 cells. There was no significant difference in the intracellular accumulation of paclitaxel in V/HepG2 and MRP4/HepG2 cells, indicating that P-glycoprotein was not involved in the observed resistance to CPTs in this study. MRP4 also conferred resistance to cyclophosphamide and this was partially reversed by BSO. However, MRP4 did not increase resistance to paclitaxel, carboplatin, etoposide (VP-16), 5-fluorouracil, and cyclosporine.
Human MRP4 rendered significant resistance to cyclophosphamide, CPT, CPT-11, SN-38, rubitecan, and 10-OH-CPT. CPT-11 and SN-38 are substrates for MRP4. Further studies are needed to explore the role of MRP4 in resistance, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of CPTs and cyclophosphamide.
"Chemotherapy resistance is a major obstacle to successful cancer treatment and members of the ABCC/MRP transporter family are perhaps best known for their abilities to confer drug resistance through the active export of structurally dissimilar chemotherapeutic compounds in various cancers (Borst et al., 2000). Clinically relevant drugs known to be transported by MRP4 include nucleoside and nucleotide analogs (Chen et al., 2001) and, relevant to neuroblastoma, the camptothecins irinotecan (Norris et al., 2005) and topotecan (Tian et al., 2005) (Table 1). Therefore, the role of MRP4 in establishing drug resistance has been explored in a number of cancer cell lines. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to cytotoxic drugs is thought to be a major cause of treatment failure in childhood neuroblastoma, and members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily may contribute to this phenomenon by active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells. As a member of the C subfamily of ABC transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP4/ABCC4 has the ability to export a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances across the plasma membrane. In light of its capacity for chemotherapeutic drug efflux, MRP4 has been studied in the context of drug resistance in a number of cancer cell types. However, MRP4 also influences cancer cell biology independently of chemotherapeutic drug exposure, which highlights the potential importance of endogenous MRP4 substrates in cancer biology. Furthermore, MRP4 is a direct transcriptional target of Myc family oncoproteins and expression of this transporter is a powerful independent predictor of clinical outcome in neuroblastoma. Together, these features suggest that inhibition of MRP4 may be an attractive therapeutic approach for neuroblastoma and other cancers that rely on MRP4. In this respect, existing options for MRP4 inhibition are relatively non-selective and thus development of more specific anti-MRP4 compounds should be a major focus of future work in this area.
Frontiers in Oncology 12/2012; 2:178. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2012.00178
"Expression driven by the MRP4/ABCC4 promoter does not appear to respond to testosterone or antiandrogens [Ho et al. 2008], suggesting an indirect mechanism of androgen regulation. ABCC4 expression has been reported to affect sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents such as camptothecins, cyclophosphamide, topotecan, methotrexate, and nucleoside analogues [Chen et al. 2002; Leggas et al. 2004; Tian et al. 2005]; however, there are no data to suggest that docetaxel is a substrate of this ABC transporter, or that MRP4 expression contributes to docetaxel resistance. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer has been historically challenging, with few therapeutic successes. Docetaxel was the first cytotoxic therapy associated with a survival benefit in castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Toxicity is typical of other cytotoxic agents, with myelosuppression being the dose-limiting toxicity and neurotoxicity also a notable side effect for some patients. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of men with castrate-resistant prostate cancer will not respond to docetaxel-based therapy and all patients will ultimately develop resistance. Because it is an effective therapy, docetaxel is likely to remain an important part of the treatment arsenal against metastatic prostate cancer for the foreseeable future, despite its toxicities and limitations. Overcoming docetaxel resistance has been a challenge since docetaxel was first established as front-line therapy for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Recent studies have shown that several new drugs, including cabazitaxel and abiraterone, are effective after docetaxel failure, dramatically changing the therapeutic landscape for these patients. In addition, a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying docetaxel resistance has led to several new treatment approaches which hold promise for the future. This review will discuss recent therapeutic advances in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer as well as ongoing clinical trials.
rapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology, The 11/2012; 4(6):329-40. DOI:10.1177/1758834012449685 · 2.83 Impact Factor
"The precise mechanism of 4HCY intracellular transport has not been evaluated; however, ABCC2 and ABCC4 are involved in the transport of CY and other metabolites (Qiu et al., 2004; Tian et al., 2005). Variability in 4HCY exposure, quantitated as area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), may account for interpatient differences in the efficacy of CY. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results from retrospective studies on the relationship between cytochrome P450 (P450) 2B6 (CYP2B6) genotype and cyclophosphamide (CY) efficacy and toxicity in adult cancer patients have been conflicting. We evaluated this relationship in children, who have faster CY clearance and receive different CY-based regimens than adults. These factors may influence the P450s metabolizing CY to 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4HCY), the principal precursor to CY's cytotoxic metabolite. Therefore, we sought to characterize the in vitro and in vivo roles of hepatic CYP2B6 and its main allelic variants in 4HCY formation. CYP2B6 is the major isozyme responsible for 4HCY formation in recombinant P450 Supersomes. In human liver microsomes (HLM), 4HCY formation correlated with known phenotypic markers of CYP2B6 activity, specifically formation of (S)-2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenyl pyrrolidine and hydroxybupropion. However, in HLM, CYP3A4/5 also contributes to 4HCY formation at the CY concentrations similar to plasma concentrations achieved in children (0.1 mM). 4HCY formation was not associated with CYP2B6 genotype at low (0.1 mM) or high (1 mM) CY concentrations potentially because CYP3A4/5 and other isozymes also form 4HCY. To remove this confounder, 4HCY formation was evaluated in recombinant CYP2B6 enzymes, which demonstrated that 4HCY formation was lower for CYP2B6.4 and CYP2B6.5 compared with CYP2B6.1. In vivo, CYP2B6 genotype was not directly related to CY clearance or ratio of 4HCY/CY areas under the curve in 51 children receiving CY-based regimens. Concomitant chemotherapy agents did not influence 4HCY formation in vitro. We conclude that CYP2B6 genotype is not consistently related to 4HCY formation in vitro or in vivo.
Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 01/2012; 40(1):54-63. DOI:10.1124/dmd.111.039347 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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