Effect of Race on Cultural Justifications for Caregiving

Center for Aging and Diversity, University of North Carolina Institute on Aging, 720 Airport Road, Suite 100, CB 1030, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-1030, USA.
The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (Impact Factor: 3.21). 10/2005; 60(5):S257-62. DOI: 10.1093/geronb/60.5.S257
Source: PubMed


Our objective in this study was to explore the effects of caregiver characteristics on cultural reasons given for providing care to dependent elderly family members.
The sample included 48 African American and 121 White caregivers. Using multivariate analyses, we used caregiver characteristics (e.g., race, gender, education) to predict scores on the Cultural Justifications for Caregiving Scale (CJCS).
Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the CJCS was appropriate for both African American and White caregivers. African Americans had stronger cultural reasons for providing care than Whites, education levels were inversely related to CJCS scores, and the influences of gender and age on cultural reasons were moderated by race. Compared to females, African American males had lower CJCS scores, whereas White males had higher CJCS scores. Younger as compared to older White caregivers had higher CJCS scores.
This study supports the long-standing cultural tradition of African American families providing care to dependent elders. Cultural reasons for caregiving need to be interpreted within the context of race and gender socialization. Social roles, such as husband or wife, son or daughter, can also help determine how individuals within a particular cultural group experience cultural expectations and obligations. Information from this study can inform culturally appropriate caregiving interventions.

20 Reads
  • Source
    • "These inequalities are thought to lead to a greater need for support but a lesser ability to draw on financial resources to purchase alternatives to kin support. The cultural explanation argues that values such as familism or filial piety are responsible for ethnic group differences in support (Dilworth-Anderson et al., 2005; Pyke & Bengtson, 1996). The cultural explanation is mediated by the process of migration and change. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Minority ethnic groups are often assumed to exchange higher levels of informal support than the majority population, despite evidence that controlling for socioeconomic and health inequalities eliminates differences. Using a unique data set from England and Wales, we examined instrumental support across ethnic groups in mid and later life. Method: Employing data from the Home Office Citizenship Survey 2005 (N = 14,081), we investigated ethnic group differences in instrumental support among people aged 55 and older in England and Wales (n = 4,710). Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the determinants of support given and received, guided by the Andersen-Newman behavioral model. Results: Compared with the White British group, the Indian group reported significantly higher odds (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-4.7) of receiving instrumental support from household members but significantly lower odds of giving support to relatives outside the household (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9). Three other ethnic groups (Pakistani and Bangladeshi, Mixed, Other) reported significantly lower odds in unadjusted findings, but when adjusted, ethnic group differences were no longer significant. Discussion: Our analyses suggest few ethnic group differences in instrumental support once need and enabling factors were taken into account. Such findings are contrary to the belief that minority groups exchange more informal support and therefore have less need for formal services. The Andersen-Newman model is useful for guiding the analysis of support both given and received.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 01/2013; 68(2). DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbs160 · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "To identify reviews, the publication type was limited to systematic reviews, literature reviews, or meta-analyses. The search identified 13 narrative literature reviews (Gonzales et al., 1995; Connell & Gibson, 1997; Aranda & Knight, 1997; Braun & Browne, 1998; Dilworth-Anderson & Gibson, 1999; Janevic & Connell, 2001; Dilworth-Anderson et al., 2002; Knight et al., 2002; Milne & Chryssanthopoulou, 2005; Chan, 2010; Knight & Sayegh, 2010; Botsford et al., 2011; Sun et al., 2012 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The increasing prevalence of dementia highlights the continued importance of family caregiving to society. Increasing ethnocultural diversity of the older population means that it is important to understand how culture influences dementia caregiving. This paper reviews evidence about the influence of cultural values such as familism and filial piety on the process of caregiving. Three hypotheses based on the Sociocultural Stress and Coping Model (Knight & Sayegh, 2010) and stress, coping, and adaptation theory (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) are examined. It is hypothesized that cultural values influence caregiver well-being indirectly through their influence on: (1) burden appraisal; (2) social support; and (3) coping. A review of reviews, supplemented by recent research about cultural values and family caregiving revealed some support for the first and third hypothesis. Research about social support and cultural values was rare. Overall, research that measures cultural values is limited and further research is needed.
  • Source
    • "The participants in this study are from the Alzheimer's Study of Emotions in Caregivers (ASEC) that were recruited from the Duke Caregiver Study (see Brummett et al., 2006 and Dilworth-Anderson et al, 2005 for additional information on the parent study). Caregivers for the Duke Caregiver study were recruited using flyers, adds in the local media and community outreach efforts conducted in collaboration with the Duke Caregiver Support Program. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study used data from the Alzheimer's Study of Emotions in Caregivers (ASEC) to evaluate perceptions of social support assessed at baseline, as well as changes in social support assessed at a follow-up eight-years later, as predictors of symptoms of change in depression, with a focus on race as a potential moderator of these relationships. Specifically, multiple regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, income, education, race, living arrangement of care recipient at baseline, death of care recipient, the cultural justification for caregiving scale (CJCS), and baseline depressive symptoms were conducted to assess baseline social support ratings, as well as the change in social support over time as a predictor of depression at follow-up-with a focus on moderation by race. Baseline social support (F(1,77) = 7.60, p=.008) was associated with fewer depressive symptoms at follow-up for all participants. The change in social support over time was also related to depressive symptoms, with effects moderated by race (F(1,77) = 7.97, p = .007), such that when support decreased over time depressive symptoms at follow-up were higher for Whites, as compared with African Americans, whereas, when social support increased over time depressive symptoms tended to be similar for both groups. These findings indicate that research designed to plan interventions in caregivers must not ignore potential racial differences with regard to the effects of caregiving on mental health.
    Clinical Gerontologist 06/2012; 35(4):289-302. DOI:10.1080/07317115.2012.678569 · 0.94 Impact Factor
Show more