Anti-nociception is selectively enhanced by parallel inhibition of multiple subtypes of monoamine transporters in rat models of persistent and neuropathic pain.

Department of Pharmacology, NeuroSearch A/S, 93 Pederstrupvej, 2750, Ballerup, Denmark.
Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.99). 12/2005; 182(4):551-61. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-005-0120-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neuropathic pain is characterised by hyperexcitability within nociceptive pathways that manifests behaviourally as allodynia and hyperalgesia and remains difficult to treat with standard analgesics. However, antidepressants have shown reasonable preclinical and clinical anti-nociceptive efficacy against signs and symptoms of neuropathic pain.
To ascertain whether inhibition of serotonin (5-HT) and/or noradrenaline (NA) and/or dopamine (DA) re-uptake preferentially mediates superior anti-nociception in preclinical pain models.
The 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (3-30 mg/kg), the NA re-uptake inhibitor reboxetine (3-30 mg/kg), the dual 5-HT and NA re-uptake inhibitor venlafaxine (3-100 mg/kg) and the dual DA and NA re-uptake inhibitor bupropion (3-30 mg/kg) were tested after intraperitoneal administration in rat models of acute, persistent and neuropathic pain.
Reboxetine and venlafaxine dose-dependently attenuated second-phase flinching in the formalin test; fluoxetine attenuated flinching only at the highest dose tested, whereas bupropion was ineffective. In the chronic constriction injury (CCI) and spinal nerve ligation models of neuropathic pain, hindpaw mechanical allodynia was significantly attenuated by fluoxetine and particularly by bupropion. Reboxetine and venlafaxine were completely ineffective. In contrast, reboxetine and venlafaxine reversed thermal hyperalgesia in CCI rats, whereas bupropion and fluoxetine were either minimally effective or ineffective. Fluoxetine, reboxetine and venlafaxine transiently increased the tail-flick latency in uninjured animals. Anti-nociceptive doses of drugs had no effect on motor function.
Combined re-uptake inhibition of 5-HT and NA appears to confer a greater degree of anti-nociception in animal models of experimental pain than single mechanism of action inhibitors. The selective attenuation of mechanical allodynia by bupropion suggests that the additional re-uptake of DA may further augment 5-HT/NA re-uptake mediated anti-nociception after nerve injury.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Chronic neuropathic pain can lead to anxiety and depression. Drugs that block reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine and/or dopamine are widely used to treat depression, and have emerged as useful drugs in the treatment of neuropathic pain. This study compared the acute antinociceptive effects of NS18283, a novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor (MRI) with indatraline, venlafaxine and escitalopram in a mouse model of neuropathic pain.Method Neuropathic pain-like behaviours were induced in mice by repeated injections of oxaliplatin (OXA), and assessed using the von Frey hair test, the cold plate test and the thermal preference plate test. Anxio/depressive phenotype and antidepressant-like properties of compounds were assessed by the novelty suppressed feeding test and the tail suspension test, respectively.ResultsIn vivo microdialysis experiments showed that each MRI increased extracellular serotonin, norepinephrine and/or dopamine levels in the cingulate cortex, in agreement with their in vitro reuptake inhibitory properties. Indatraline (3 mg/kg) reversed the full repertoire of OXA-induced neuropathic hypersensitivity. NS18283 (10 mg/kg) reversed OXA-induced mechano-hypersensitivity and cold allodynia. Venlafaxine (16 mg/kg) and escitalopram (4 mg/kg) only reversed cold allodynia and mechano-hypersensitivity, respectively. All MRIs produced antidepressant-like activity in anxio/depressive phenotype of OXA mice.Conclusions Acute administration of drugs that enhance the activity of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmission within nociceptive pathways may provide a broader spectrum of antinociception than dual or selective reuptake inhibitors in animal models of neuropathic pain. Whether similar observations would occur after repeated administration of such compounds in an attempt to simulate dosing in humans, or be compromised by dopaminergic-mediated adverse effects warrants further investigation.
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    ABSTRACT: The analgesic properties of antidepressants are often used in the treatment of neuropathy, however their influence on glial cells in maintaining neuropathic pain is unknown. Our studies examined the neuropathic pain-relieving properties after intraperitoneal injection of amitriptyline, doxepin, milnacipran, venlafaxine and fluoxetine 7 days after sciatic nerve injury (CCI) in rats and its influence on microglia/macrophages (IBA-1) and astroglia (GFAP) activation in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) using Western blot. All tested antidepressants significantly reduced CCI-induced allodynia but hyperalgesia was only antagonized by fluoxetine, doxepine and venlafaxine. The strongest analgesia was observed after fluoxetine administration. A Western blot analysis shown the upregulation of the IBA-1 in the lumbar spinal cord and DRG after amitriptyline or milnacipran administration in CCI-exposed rats, whereas after fluoxetine the downregulation was observed. The administration of doxepin did not change the IBA-1 protein level in both studied structures, however venlafaxine decreased the IBA-1 only in the DRG. No changes in the GFAP level in both structures were observed after any of listed above antidepressants administration. Chronic minocycline treatment enhanced amitriptyline and milnacipran, but did not fluoxetine analgesia under neuropathic pain in rats. Our results suggest that nerve injury-induced pain is related with the activation of microglia, which is diminished by fluoxetine treatment in the neuropathic pain model. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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