HIV transmission behaviors in jail/prison among puerto rican drug injectors in New York and Puerto Rico.
ABSTRACT This study examined HIV risk behavior in jail/prison among Puerto Rican drug injectors in New York (NY, n = 300) and Puerto Rico (PR, n = 200), and its relationship with later drug and sex risk behaviors. During 3 years prior to interview, 66% of NY and 43% of PR samples were incarcerated at least once. While incarcerated, 5% of NY and 53% of PR injected drugs. Few reported engaging in sex inside jail/prison (5% in both sites). Of those who engaged in risk behaviors in jail/prison, almost all reported having unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. The impact of jail/prison risk behaviors on risk behaviors after release differed between the two sites: they were more related to subsequent sex risk behaviors in NY, and subsequent injection risk behaviors in PR. The findings indicate a need for effective drug treatment programs inside jail/prisons to reduce HIV-related risk behaviors among drug injectors during incarceration and after release.
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ABSTRACT: Sterile syringe access is an important means to reduce HIV risk, but many injection drug users (IDU) who obtain syringes from sterile sources continue to share syringes. We examined the factors associated with continuing syringe sharing in New York City. We recruited 500 active IDU in 2005 through respondent-driven sampling. In multiple logistic regression, not obtaining all syringes in the past year exclusively from sterile sources was associated with increased syringe sharing. Ensuring adequate syringe availability as well as engaging and retaining nonusers and inconsistent users in sterile syringe services may increase sterile syringe access and decrease syringe sharing.Substance Use & Misuse 01/2011; 46(2-3):192-200. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: North America's first government sanctioned medically supervised injection facility (SIF) was opened during September 2003 in Vancouver, Canada. This was in response to a large open public drug scene, high rates of HIV and hepatitis C transmission, fatal drug overdoses, and poor health outcomes among the city's injection drug users. Between December 2003 and April 2005, a representative sample of 1,035 SIF participants were enrolled in a prospective cohort that required completing an interviewer-administered questionnaire and providing a blood sample for HIV testing. HIV infection was detected in 170/1007 (17%) participants and was associated with Aboriginal ethnicity (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR], 2.70, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI], 1.84-3.97), a history of borrowing used needles/syringes (aOR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.37-2.93), previous incarceration (aOR, 1.87, 95% CI, 1.11-3.14), and daily injection cocaine use (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.00-2.03). The SIF has attracted a large number of marginalized injection drug users and presents an excellent opportunity to enhance HIV prevention through education, the provision of sterile injecting equipment, and a supervised environment to self-inject. In addition, the SIF is an important point of contact for HIV positive individuals who may not be participating in HIV care and treatment.Harm Reduction Journal 02/2006; 3:36. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Risk for HIV is primarily associated with two behaviors of unprotected sexual contact and injected drug use (IDU). This study was carried out to determine the demographic data and high-risk behaviors in HIV positive individuals in southern Iran. Patients and methods: Totally, 304 HIV-infected individuals referring to Center for Counseling of Behavioral Changes in Shiraz entered our study. Their demographic data and risk factors for HIV (injection addiction, unprotected sexual contact, and blood transfusion) were recorded. Blood specimens were provided and tested for HIV antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at Fars Blood Transfusion Organization were carried out. Specimens reactive upon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were confirmed by western blot assay. Results: Study population included 269 males and 35 females mostly aged 25-34 years. Totally, 60% of females and 30.8% of males were married, while 80.3% of males and 74.3% of females belonged to poor-educated level (had not got diploma). Of 269 males, 247 (91.8%) had been jailed. The risk behaviors were as follow: 40.8% IDU, 16.4% unprotected sexual contact, 32.6% both IDU and unprotected sexual contact, 1.6% blood transfusion, 7.9% other high risk behaviors including tattooing, shared blade and knife injury and 0.7% had unknown high risk behavior. Maternal transmission was not observed. Conclusion: It seems that establishing Drop In Center for giving free disposed syringes to IDUs, training a correct injection and a good dressing service, bathroom, nutrition and methods replacement therapy would be effective means to reduce high risk behaviors.Iranian Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases 01/2008; 3:209-213.