HIV Transmission Behaviors in Jail/Prison Among Puerto Rican Drug Injectors in New York and Puerto Rico
ABSTRACT This study examined HIV risk behavior in jail/prison among Puerto Rican drug injectors in New York (NY, n = 300) and Puerto Rico (PR, n = 200), and its relationship with later drug and sex risk behaviors. During 3 years prior to interview, 66% of NY and 43% of PR samples were incarcerated at least once. While incarcerated, 5% of NY and 53% of PR injected drugs. Few reported engaging in sex inside jail/prison (5% in both sites). Of those who engaged in risk behaviors in jail/prison, almost all reported having unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. The impact of jail/prison risk behaviors on risk behaviors after release differed between the two sites: they were more related to subsequent sex risk behaviors in NY, and subsequent injection risk behaviors in PR. The findings indicate a need for effective drug treatment programs inside jail/prisons to reduce HIV-related risk behaviors among drug injectors during incarceration and after release.
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ABSTRACT: This study explored whether place of birth and residence was associated with needle sharing for Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) (N = 348). In-person interviews were conducted in Puerto Rico and Massachusetts during 2005-2007. Multivariate regression analyses revealed IDUs born and living in Puerto Rico were four times more likely to have shared needles compared to those residing in Massachusetts. Respondents residing in Massachusetts were 76% less likely to have ever shared needles with an HIV-positive individual, controlling for covariates. Findings highlight the increased HIV-risk of Puerto Rican IDUs born and residing in Puerto Rico. Prevention and treatment needs are discussed.Substance Use & Misuse 05/2010; 45(10):1605-22. DOI:10.3109/10826081003682842 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: No adequate data exist on patterns of injection drug use (IDU) prevalence over time within racial/ethnic groups in U.S. geographic areas. The absence of such prevalence data limits our understanding of the causes and consequences of IDU and hampers planning efforts for IDU-related interventions. Here, we (1) describe a method of estimating IDU prevalence among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White adult residents of 95 large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) annually over an 11-year period (1992–2002); (2) validate the resulting prevalence estimates; and (3) document temporal trends in these prevalence estimates. IDU prevalence estimates for Black adults were calculated in several steps: we (1) created estimates of the proportion of injectors who were Black in each MSA and year by analyzing databases documenting injectors’ encounters with the healthcare system; (2) multiplied the resulting proportions by previously calculated estimates of the total number of injectors in each MSA and year (Brady et al., 2008); (3) divided the result by the number of Black adults living in each MSA each year; and (4) validated the resulting estimates by correlating them cross-sectionally with theoretically related constructs (Black- and White-specific prevalences of drug-related mortality and of mortality from hepatitis C). We used parallel methods to estimate and validate White IDU prevalence. We analyzed trends in the resulting racial/ethnic-specific IDU prevalence estimates using measures of central tendency and hierarchical linear models (HLM). Black IDU prevalence declined from a median of 279 injectors per 10,000 adults in 1992 to 156 injectors per 10,000 adults in 2002. IDU prevalence for White adults remained relatively flat over time (median values ranged between 86 and 97 injectors per 10,000 adults). HLM analyses described similar trends and suggest that declines in Black IDU prevalence decelerated over time. Both sets of IDU estimates correlated cross-sectionally adequately with validators, suggesting that they have acceptable convergent validity (range for Black IDU prevalence validation: 0.27 < r < 0.61; range for White IDU prevalence: 0.38 < r < 0.80). These data give insight, for the first time, into IDU prevalence trends among Black adults and White adults in large U.S. MSAs. The decline seen here for Black adults may partially explain recent reductions in newly reported cases of IDU-related HIV evident in surveillance data on this population. Declining Black IDU prevalence may have been produced by (1) high AIDS-related mortality rates among Black injectors in the 1990s, rates lowered by the advent of HAART; (2) reduced IDU incidence among Black drug users; and/or (3) MSA-level social processes (e.g., diminishing residential segregation). The stability of IDU prevalence among White adults between 1992 and 2002 may be a function of lower AIDS-related mortality rates in this population; relative stability (and perhaps increases in some MSAs) in initiating IDU among White drug users; and social processes. Future research should investigate the extent to which these racial/ethnic-specific IDU prevalence trends (1) explain, and are explained by, recent trends in IDU-related health outcomes, and (2) are determined by MSA-level social processes.Journal of Urban Health 11/2008; 85(6):826-856. DOI:10.1007/s11524-008-9304-9 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: North America's first government sanctioned medically supervised injection facility (SIF) was opened during September 2003 in Vancouver, Canada. This was in response to a large open public drug scene, high rates of HIV and hepatitis C transmission, fatal drug overdoses, and poor health outcomes among the city's injection drug users. Between December 2003 and April 2005, a representative sample of 1,035 SIF participants were enrolled in a prospective cohort that required completing an interviewer-administered questionnaire and providing a blood sample for HIV testing. HIV infection was detected in 170/1007 (17%) participants and was associated with Aboriginal ethnicity (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR], 2.70, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI], 1.84-3.97), a history of borrowing used needles/syringes (aOR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.37-2.93), previous incarceration (aOR, 1.87, 95% CI, 1.11-3.14), and daily injection cocaine use (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.00-2.03). The SIF has attracted a large number of marginalized injection drug users and presents an excellent opportunity to enhance HIV prevention through education, the provision of sterile injecting equipment, and a supervised environment to self-inject. In addition, the SIF is an important point of contact for HIV positive individuals who may not be participating in HIV care and treatment.Harm Reduction Journal 02/2006; 3:36. DOI:10.1186/1477-7517-3-36 · 1.26 Impact Factor