Anti-erbB-2 antibody trastuzumab in the treatment of HER2-amplified breast cancer.
ABSTRACT Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2/erbB-2) is a member of a family of four transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases that regulate cell growth, survival and differentiation via multiple signal transduction pathways. Amplification of the HER2 gene occurs in 20-25% of human breast cancers. This amplification event is an independent adverse prognostic factor as well as a predictive factor for increased response to doxorubicin-based combination chemotherapy, response to trastuzumab and decreased response to hormonal therapy. Methods for detecting protein overexpression or gene amplification in clinical tumor specimens include immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques, with the latter considered by some to be more accurate. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody which targets an epitope in the extracellular domain of the HER2 protein. Preclinical models demonstrated that this antibody has significant anti-tumor activity as a single agent and has synergy with certain chemotherapeutic drugs. Phase II and III clinical trials performed in women with metastatic breast cancer that overexpress HER2 have shown that trastuzumab has clinical activity when used as first-, second- or third-line monotherapy, and improves survival when used as first-line therapy in combination with chemotherapy. Newer combinations with numerous chemotherapeutic drugs have also shown significant clinical activity in phase II studies. In all of these trials, trastuzumab was generally well-tolerated, but cardiac toxicity (particularly when the antibody was combined with anthracyclines) was an unexpected adverse effect. Although trastuzumab is currently usually administered on a weekly intravenous schedule, evidence suggests that a triple dose of the drug given once every three weeks has a pharmacokinetic profile expected to be equally efficacious. Neither the optimal schedule nor the optimal duration of trastuzumab therapy has yet been clearly defined in controlled clinical trials. Current clinical investigations of trastuzumab include its use in both the adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings as well as in combination with other chemotherapy drugs or new biologic targeted agents.
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ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and fusion proteins directed towards cell surface targets make an important contribution to the treatment of disease. The purpose of this review was to correlate the clinical and preclinical data on the 15 currently approved mAbs and fusion proteins targeted to the cell surface. The principal sources used to gather data were: the peer reviewed Literature; European Medicines Agency 'Scientific Discussions'; and the US Food and Drug Administration 'Pharmacology/Toxicology Reviews' and package inserts (United States Prescribing Information). Data on the 15 approved biopharmaceuticals were included: abatacept; abciximab; alefacept; alemtuzumab; basiliximab; cetuximab; daclizumab; efalizumab; ipilimumab; muromonab; natalizumab; panitumumab; rituximab; tocilizumab; and trastuzumab. For statistical analysis of concordance, data from these 15 were combined with data on the approved mAbs and fusion proteins directed towards soluble targets. Good concordance with human pharmacodynamics was found for mice receiving surrogates or non-human primates (NHPs) receiving the human pharmaceutical. In contrast, there was poor concordance for human pharmacodynamics in genetically deficient mice and for human adverse effects in all three test systems. No evidence that NHPs have superior predictive value was found.British Journal of Pharmacology 12/2011; 166(3):823-46. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01811.x · 4.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lapatinib (Tykerb, GW572016), a potent inhibitor of the catalytic activities of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (ErbB2), inhibits population growth of selected EGFR and HER2 overexpressing cell lines. Previous studies with a small number of cell lines suggest a correlation between overexpression of EGFR and/or HER2 and sensitivity to growth inhibition by lapatinib; however, the precise determinants of lapatinib selectivity for tumour and/or other cells remain unclear. To clarify the determinants of its selectivity in cultured cells, lapatinib-induced cell population growth inhibition and relative EGFR and HER2 protein expression were quantified in 61 different human tumour cell lines from 12 tumour types, two oncogene transformed human cell lines and two normal human cell cultures. Using statistical tools to analyse the data, a model describing the relationship between lapatinib IC(50) (the response variable) and EGFR and HER2 expression and tissue type (explanatory variables) was derived. The results suggest that simultaneous consideration of EGFR and HER2 expression, as well as tissue type yields the best determinant of lapatinib selectivity in cultured cells.Cell Proliferation 09/2007; 40(4):580-94. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2007.00455.x · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Grb7 has potential importance in the progression of cancer. We have previously identified a novel peptide that binds to the SH2 domain of Grb7 and inhibits its association with several different receptor tyrosine kinases. We have synthesised the Grb7 peptide, G7-18NATE, with two different cell penetrating peptides, Penetratin and Tat. In this study, we have shown that both Penetratin- and Tat-conjugated G7-18NATE peptides are able to inhibit the proliferation of SK-BR-3, ZR-75-30, MDA-MB-361 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. There was no significant effects on breast cancer MCF-7cells, non-malignant MCF 10A or 3T3 cells. In addition, there was no significant inhibition of proliferation by Penetratin or Tat alone or by their conjugates with arbitrary peptide sequence in any of the cell lines tested. We determined the EC50 of G7-18NATE-P peptide for SK-BR-3 cell proliferation to be 7.663 x 10(-6) M. Co-treatment of G7-18NATE-P peptide plus Doxorubicin in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells resulted in an additional inhibition of proliferation, resulting in 56 and 84% decreases in the Doxorubicin EC50 value in the presence of 5 x 10(-6) and 1.0 x 10(-5) M G7-18NATE-P peptide, respectively. Importantly, the co-treatment with Doxorubicin and the delivery peptide did not change the Doxorubicin EC50. Since Grb7 associates with ErbB2, we assessed whether the peptide inhibitor would have a combined effect with a molecule that targets ErbB2, Herceptin. Co-treatment of Herceptin plus 1.0 x 10(-5) M G7-18NATE-P peptide in SK-BR-3 cells resulted in a 46% decrease in the Herceptin EC50 value and no decrease following the co-treatment with Herceptin and penetratin alone. This Grb7 peptide has potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent alone, in combination with traditional chemotherapy, or in combination with other targeting molecules.British Journal of Cancer 05/2007; 96(10):1520-5. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603732 · 4.82 Impact Factor