The tumor spectrum in the Lynch syndrome.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Creighton University School of Medicine, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, Nebraska 68131, USA.
Familial Cancer (Impact Factor: 1.62). 02/2005; 4(3):245-8. DOI: 10.1007/s10689-004-7994-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Colorectal and endometrial cancer are the characteristic tumors of the Lynch syndrome. We reviewed the available evidence on the occurrence of other types of cancer in the syndrome, aiming to identify those types that can be included in the tumor spectrum, based on this evidence. We chose to define the tumor spectrum as comprising the cancers for which Lynch syndrome patients are at elevated risk. We found sufficiently strong and consistent evidence to include gastric cancer, small bowel cancer, hepatobiliary tract cancer, upper urologic tract cancer, ovarian cancer, and brain tumors in this spectrum, in addition to colorectal and endometrial cancer. We predict that the spectrum will expand as additional studies are reported, especially as prospective studies of mutation carriers are completed.

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    ABSTRACT: Lynch syndrome is associated with germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Up to 30% of DNA changes found are variants of unknown significance (VUS). Our aim was to assess the pathogenicity of eight MLH1 VUS identified in patients suspected of Lynch syndrome. All of them are novel or not previously characterized. For their classification, we followed a strategy that integrates family history, tumor pathology, and control frequency data with a variety of in silico and in vitro analyses at RNA and protein level, such as MMR assay, MLH1 and PMS2 expression, and subcellular localization. Five MLH1 VUS were classified as pathogenic: c.[248G>T(;)306G>C], c.[780C>G;788A>C], and c.791-7T>A affected mRNA processing, whereas c.218T>C (p.L73P) and c.244G>A (p.T82A) impaired MMR activity. Two other VUS were considered likely neutral: the silent c.702G>A variant did not affect mRNA processing or stability, and c.974G>A (p.R325Q) did not influence MMR function. In contrast, variant c.25C>T (p.R9W) could not be classified, as it associated with intermediate levels of MMR activity. Comprehensive functional assessment of MLH1 variants was useful in their classification and became relevant in the diagnosis and genetic counseling of carrier families. Hum Mutat 33:1576-1588, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Mutation 01/2013; 33(11):1576-88. DOI:10.1002/humu.22142 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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    Colorectal Disease 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/codi.12940 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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