The histone H3 acetylase dGcn5 is a key player in Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis.
ABSTRACT Although it has been well established that histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are involved in the modulation of chromatin structure and gene transcription, there is only little information on their developmental role in higher organisms. Gcn5 was the first transcription factor with HAT activity identified in eukaryotes. Here we report the isolation and characterization of Drosophila melanogaster dGcn5 mutants. Null dGcn5 alleles block the onset of both oogenesis and metamorphosis, while hypomorphic dGcn5 alleles impair the formation of adult appendages and cuticle. Strikingly, the dramatic loss of acetylation of the K9 and K14 lysine residues of histone H3 in dGcn5 mutants has no noticeable effect on larval tissues. In contrast, strong cell proliferation defects in imaginal tissues are observed. In vivo complementation experiments revealed that dGcn5 integrates specific functions in addition to chromosome binding and acetylation. Surprisingly, a dGcn5 variant protein with a deletion of the bromodomain, which has been shown to recognize acetylated histones, appears to be fully functional. Our results establish dGcn5 as a major histone H3 acetylase in Drosophila which plays a key role in the control of specific morphogenetic cascades during developmental transitions.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Identification of components essential to chromosome structure and behaviour remains a vibrant area of study. We have previously shown that invadolysin is essential in Drosophila, with roles in cell division and cell migration. Mitotic chromosomes are hypercondensed in length, but display an aberrant fuzzy appearance. We additionally demonstrated that in human cells, invadolysin is localized on the surface of lipid droplets, organelles that store not only triglycerides and sterols but also free histones H2A, H2Av and H2B. Is there a link between the storage of histones in lipid droplets and the aberrantly structured chromosomes of invadolysin mutants? We have identified a genetic interaction between invadolysin and nonstop, the de-ubiquitinating protease component of the SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) chromatin-remodelling complex. invadolysin and nonstop mutants exhibit phenotypic similarities in terms of chromosome structure in both diploid and polyploid cells. Furthermore, IX-14(1)/not(1) transheterozygous animals accumulate mono-ubiquitinated histone H2B (ubH2B) and histone H3 tri-methylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3). Whole mount immunostaining of IX-14(1)/not(1) transheterozygous salivary glands revealed that ubH2B accumulates surprisingly in the cytoplasm, rather than the nucleus. Over-expression of the Bre1 ubiquitin ligase phenocopies the effects of mutating either the invadolysin or nonstop genes. Intriguingly, nonstop and mutants of other SAGA subunits (gcn5, ada2b and sgf11) all suppress an invadolysin-induced rough eye phenotype. We conclude that the abnormal chromosome phenotype of invadolysin mutants is likely the result of disrupting the histone modification cycle, as accumulation of ubH2B and H3K4me3 is observed. We further suggest that the mislocalization of ubH2B to the cytoplasm has additional consequences on downstream components essential for chromosome behaviour. We therefore propose that invadolysin plays a crucial role in chromosome organization via its interaction with the SAGA complex. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.Nucleic Acids Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/nar/gkv211 · 8.81 Impact Factor
Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2012; 17(1):909. DOI:10.2741/3964 · 4.25 Impact Factor