Obesity Is Not a Contraindication to Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication

Department of Surgery, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida 33601, USA.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.39). 09/2005; 9(7):949-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.gassur.2005.04.019
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Obesity has been shown to be a significant predisposing factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, obesity is also thought to be a contraindication to antireflux surgery. This study was undertaken to determine if clinical outcomes after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplications are influenced by preoperative body mass index (BMI). From a prospective database of patients undergoing treatment for GERD, 257 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication were studied. Patients were stratified by preoperative BMI: normal (<25), overweight (25-30), and obese (>30). Clinical outcomes were scored by patients with a Likert scale. Overweight and obese patients had more severe preoperative reflux, although symptom scores for reflux and dysphagia were similar among all weight categories. There was a trend toward longer operative times for obese patients. Mean follow-up was 26+/-23.9 months. Mean heartburn and dysphagia symptom scores improved for patients of all BMI categories (P<0.001). Postoperative symptom scores and clinical success rates did not differ among BMI categories. Most patients undergoing laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication are overweight or obese with moderate dysphagia and severe acid reflux. Clinical outcomes after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication did not differ among patients stratified by preoperative BMI. Obesity is not a contraindication to laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication.

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    ABSTRACT: For nearly 2 decades, the laparoscopic correction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has demonstrated its utility. However, the surgical technique has evolved over time, with mixed long-term results. We briefly review the evolution of antireflux surgery for the treatment of GERD, provide an update specific to the long-term efficacy of laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS), and analyze the factors predictive of a desirable outcome. PubMed and Medline database searches were performed to identify articles regarding the laparoscopic treatment of GERD. Emphasis was placed on randomized control trials (RCTs) and reports with follow-up >1 year. Specific parameters addressed included operative technique, resolution of symptoms, complications, quality of life, division of short gastric vessels (SGVs), mesh repair, and approximation of the crura. Those studies specifically addressing follow-up of <1 year, the pediatric or elderly population, redo fundoplication, and repair of paraesophageal hernia and short esophagus were excluded. LARS has varied in technical approach through the years. Not until recently have more long-term, objective studies become available to allow for evidenced-based appraisals. Our review of the literature found no long-term difference in the rates of heartburn, gas-bloat, antacid use, or patient satisfaction between laparoscopic Nissen and Toupet fundoplication. In addition, several studies have shown that more patients had an abnormal pH profile following laparoscopic partial as opposed to total fundoplication. Conversely, dysphagia was more common following laparoscopic total versus partial fundoplication in 50% of RCTs at 12-month follow-up, though this resolved over time, being present in only 20% with follow-up >24 months. We confirmed that preoperative factors, such as hiatal hernia, atypical symptoms, poor antacid response, body mass index (BMI), and postoperative vomiting, are potential predictors of an unsatisfactory long-term outcome. Last, no trial disfavored division of the short gastric vessels (SGVs), closure of the crura, or mesh repair for hiatal defects. LARS has significantly evolved over time. The laparoscopic total fundoplication appears to provide more durable long-term results than the partial approach, as long as the technical elements of the operation are respected. Division of the SGVs, closure of the crura, and the use of mesh for large hiatal defects positively impacts long-term outcome. Hiatal hernia, atypical symptoms, poor antacid response, body mass index (BMI), and postoperative vomiting are potential predictors of failure in LARS.
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