RNA interference constitutes a major means of eliminating mRNAs, yet how the small interfering RNAs (siRNA) within the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) finds its homologous target in the cell remains unknown. An attractive hypothesis is that RNA interference is linked to translation which allows RISC ready access to every translated mRNA. To test whether translation could direct siRNAs to mRNAs, chemical and biological inhibitors of translation and their effects on mRNA cleavage were tested. Our results show that mRNA degradation by siRNAs is not dependent on mRNA translation.
"Ago-2 is considered to be localized in discrete foci, socalled P-bodies, in which programmed RNA degradation takes place (Liu et al., 2005; Sen et al., 2005). It is, however, unclear whether P-bodies just serve as a storage facility for RISC components or whether RNAi takes place in P-bodies (Rossi, 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viruses have evolved strategies to overcome the antiviral effects of the host at different levels. Besides specific defence mechanisms, the host responds to viral infection via the interferon pathway and also by RNA interference (RNAi). However, several viruses have been identified that suppress RNAi. We addressed the question of whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) suppresses RNAi, using cell lines constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and inducibly expressing HCV proteins. It was found that short interfering RNA-mediated GFP gene silencing was inhibited when the entire HCV polyprotein was expressed. Further studies showed that HCV structural proteins, and in particular envelope protein 2 (E2), were responsible for this inhibition. Co-precipitation assays demonstrated that E2 bound to Argonaute-2 (Ago-2), a member of the RNA-induced silencing complex, RISC. Thus, HCV E2 that interacts with Ago-2 is able to suppress RNAi.
Journal of General Virology 12/2008; 89(Pt 11):2761-6. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.2008/002923-0 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ... The goal of the project was to establish knock down of mRNA in human mesenchymal stem cells. Since these cells are difficult to transfect, a viral approach is needed to achieve sufficient expression of e. g. shRNA in a high percentage of cells to allow for an efficient silencing of corresponding mRNAs. For this purpose for every gene product of interest, a number of shRNA clones have to be tested to detect an individual shRNA with sufficient efficacy. Lentiviral systems for shRNA approaches have recently become available. The principal advantage of the lentiviral system is that it allows gene silencing in nondividing cells and therefore expands the usefulness of the RNAi-based gene silencing system. Lentivirus-delivered shRNAs are capable of specific, highly stable and functional silencing of gene expression in a variety of cell types. Since the viral transfection of MSCs is a time consuming process that involves transfection of 293 FT cells plus transduction of target cells, for this thesis the following approach was chosen: genes of interest were checked for expression in 293FT cells by RT-PCR. These gene products can be silenced in 293FT cells simply by transfection of shRNA clones and efficacy was subsequently tested by RT-PCR. Beyond this thesis then the project can proceed with effective clones to transduce primary MSCs with individual shRNA clones identified as effective silencing tool in this thesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces a sequence-specific silencing in eukaryotic cells. This silencing process beggins when long dsRNA is cleaved to 21 to 26 long small RNA by means of the RNAse III-type enzyme Dicer. These small dsRNA are included into silencing effector complexes, that are targeted to complementary sequences. Small RNA dependent gene silencing can be achieved by distinct mechanisms based depending mainly on the nature of target sequences and on the proteins present in the effector complex. The route of interference RNA (RNAi) begins when Dicer yields small interference RNA (siRNA) that bind to complementary mRNA for its degradation, forming the RISC complex, siRNA are naturally formed from transposons and dsRNA viruses during its replication, as well as from other bidirectional transcribed repetitive sequences. Some of the enzymes thar are part of the RNAi machinery, including Dicer, are encoded by multigene families in many species, that also play a role in other mechanisms of RND-dependent gene silencing. MicroRNA's (miRNA) are other small RNA's that can induce gene silencing at the mRNA level. These are formed in a general manner when Dicer process hairpin structures resulting from the transcription of non-coding sequences from plant and animal genomes, miRNA's are integrated into a RISC-like complex, after which, depending on their degree of complementarity with target mRNA, can either repress translation or induce mRNA degradation, miRNA-dependent silencing is essential for the development of multicellular organisms. Artificial RNAi induction by means of siRNA or miRNA is being used as a tool to inactivate gene expression in culture cells and in living organisms. This review focuses on the progress in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in gene regulation by RNA in animals and details some current efforts to apply theses phenomena as a tool in research and in the therapeutic of human diseases.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.