Ear problems in swimmers.

Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association (Impact Factor: 0.89). 09/2005; 68(8):347-52. DOI: 10.1016/S1726-4901(09)70174-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Swimming pools can transmit contagious diseases such as; fungal disease, otitis, conjunctivitis and amoebic meningoencephalitis. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the level of microbial contamination and the physicochemical condition of the swimming pools. Materials and Methods: In this cross – sectional study, 200 water samples were collected from four swimming pools in Kashan, Iran. Temperature, pH and residual chlorine and turbidity of the pools were examined. Samples were concentrated through a membrane filter and sedimentation, to test for the presence of parasites, fungi, and bacteria. Results: The results of the study showed that the mean of the physicochemical parameters, except in temperature, was standard in more than 60 % of the pools. Average temperature was higher than standard. The highest chlorine level was recorded in summer. Coliform bacteria was found to be positive in 3 % of the samples. Prevalence of saprophytic and opportunistic fungi was 27 %. Twelve species of fungi were isolated; the most common were Aspergillus, Penicillium sp, Rhizopus sp, and Fusarium sp, and the highest fungi pollution was observed in the summer. Prevalence of bacterial contamination was 9 %; bacteria isolate included Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. There was a significant association found between fungal and bacterial contamination with residual chlorine (P = 0.014, 0.001). Conclusions: The results showed that there were no parasites, or pseudomonas in Kashan’s swimming pools, however, the prevalence of opportunistic saprophytic fungal contamination was relatively high. Such conditions may be attributed to a high temperature and insufficient water treatment. In addition, there is a need to monitor water quality and improve staff training to increase users’ knowledge and awareness of the risks.
    Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology 01/2012; 5(3). DOI:10.5812/jjm.2478 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most researchers argue that there is general agreement on the role of environmental and behavioral factors on the onset of the auditory exostoses. Accordingly, it can be considered an aquatic activity marker in bioarchaeological studies. In this paper, the prevalence of external auditory exostoses was examined between two prepottery Neolithic communities from Aşıklı Hüyük and Çayönü Tepesi in Anatolia. Both the etiology of the ear exostoses and the causative interactions between aquatic activities and the occurrence of this trait were discussed. Of 97 adult skulls (59 males, 38 females) from the Çayönü sample only 17 subjects (15 males and 2 females) showed this bony outgrowth with a prevalence of 17.52%. There is a strong male bias in lesion frequency. Among the 28 adult skulls that were examined from Aşıklı (11 males, 17 females), only one young male (3.57%) was affected with ear exostoses. This bony lesion is completely lacking in subadults (<15 years) of both skeletal samples.
    12/2012; 2(4):181-186. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpp.2012.10.004

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