Ear Problems in Swimmers

Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association (Impact Factor: 0.85). 09/2005; 68(8):347-52. DOI: 10.1016/S1726-4901(09)70174-1
Source: PubMed


Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

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    • "There are various studies in the literature showing the relationship between water sports and inner ear disorders. However, the majority of these studies are focused on diving related (inner ear decompression sickness) and water skiing related (traumatic audiovestibular injury) problems [3] [4] [5] [6] "

    Asian Journal of Sports Medicine 03/2014; 5(1):71-2.
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    • "Several clinical and anthropological studies support the cold-water hypothesis (Wong et al., 1999; Godde, 2010; Ascenzi and Balistreri, 1975; Manzi et al., 1991). Similarly , Frayer (1988), Kennedy (1986), Wang et al. (2005), Crowe et al. (2010) and King et al. (2010) reveal that external auditory Fig. 1. Map showing locations of As¸ıklı and C ¸ ayönü archeological sites. "
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    ABSTRACT: Most researchers argue that there is general agreement on the role of environmental and behavioral factors on the onset of the auditory exostoses. Accordingly, it can be considered an aquatic activity marker in bioarchaeological studies. In this paper, the prevalence of external auditory exostoses was examined between two prepottery Neolithic communities from Aşıklı Hüyük and Çayönü Tepesi in Anatolia. Both the etiology of the ear exostoses and the causative interactions between aquatic activities and the occurrence of this trait were discussed. Of 97 adult skulls (59 males, 38 females) from the Çayönü sample only 17 subjects (15 males and 2 females) showed this bony outgrowth with a prevalence of 17.52%. There is a strong male bias in lesion frequency. Among the 28 adult skulls that were examined from Aşıklı (11 males, 17 females), only one young male (3.57%) was affected with ear exostoses. This bony lesion is completely lacking in subadults (<15 years) of both skeletal samples.
    International Journal of Paleopathology 12/2012; 2(4):181-186. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpp.2012.10.004 · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    • "In swimming pools, the primary health effect associated with P. aeruginosa is otitis externa, although folliculitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis and pneumonia have also been reported (WHO 2006). Indeed waterborne pseudomonas-infection can be recognised in patients presenting a history of participation in water sports/activities (Wang et al. 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was the development of a new molecular assay for Pseudomonas aeruginosa identification in recreational water. The method includes bacterial cell concentration through membrane filtration, a short (6 h) culture-enrichment step, DNA extraction and its amplification through a Real-Time PCR assay. The performance of the molecular approach was evaluated on 44 samples of swimming pool water and compared with the reference method UNI EN ISO 16266:2008. Positivity rates of 6% and 74% in pool and inlet water, respectively, with the standard culture method, and of 23% and 74% with the molecular method were found. Statistical analysis indicated "substantial agreement" (Cohen's Kappa index: 0.6831) between the two approaches. RAPD typing of P. aeruginosa isolates showed identical fingerprint profiles, indicating their epidemiological correlation. The developed protocol showed very high specificity and a detection limit of 10 genomic units. This technique has the potential to screen large numbers of environmental samples, and could be proposed as part of a self-monitoring plan for recreational facilities, improving surveillance and early warning systems.
    International Journal of Environmental Health Research 06/2011; 22(1):60-70. DOI:10.1080/09603123.2011.588325 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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