Normal intraabdominal pressure in healthy adults.
ABSTRACT Intraabdominal pressure (IAP) has been considered responsible for adverse effects in trauma and other abdominal catastrophes as well as in formation and recurrence of hernias. To date, little information is available concerning IAP in normal persons. Our purpose in this study was to measure the normal range of IAP in healthy, nonobese adults and correlate these measurements with sex and body mass index (BMI).
After Institutional Review Board approval, 20 healthy young adults (< or =30 years old) with no prior history of abdominal surgery were enrolled. Pressure readings were obtained through a transurethral bladder (Foley) catheter. Each subject performed 13 different tasks including standing, sitting, bending at the waist, bending at the knees, performing abdominal crunches, jumping, climbing stairs, bench-pressing 25 pounds, arm curling 10 pounds, and performing a Valsalva and coughing while sitting and also while standing. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficients.
Intraabdominal pressure was measured in 10 male and 10 female subjects. The mean age of the study group was 22.7 years (range, 18-30 years), and BMI averaged 24.6 kg/m(2) (range, 18.4-31.9 kg/m(2)). Mean IAP for sitting and standing were 16.7 and 20 mm Hg. Coughing and jumping generated the highest IAP (107.6 and 171 mm Hg, respectively). Lifting 10-pound weights and bending at the knees did not generate excessive levels of pressure with the maximum average of 25.5 mm Hg. The mean pressures were not different when comparing males and females during each maneuver. There was a significant correlation between higher BMI and increased IAP in 5 of 13 exercises.
Normal IAP correlates with BMI but does not vary based on sex. The highest intraabdominal pressures in healthy patients are generated during coughing and jumping. Based on our observations, patients with higher BMI and chronic cough appear to generate significant elevation in IAP. Thus, this group of patients may potentially be at increased risk for abdominal wall hernia formation following surgery.
Chapter: High Level of Intra-Gastric Pressure is Risk Factor for Patients with Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG)12/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-365-1
Article: Mechanical properties of mesh materials used for hernia repair and soft tissue augmentation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hernia repair is the most common surgical procedure in the world. Augmentation with synthetic meshes has gained importance in recent decades. Most of the published work about hernia meshes focuses on the surgical technique, outcome in terms of mortality and morbidity and the recurrence rate. Appropriate biomechanical and engineering terminology is frequently absent. Meshes are under continuous development but there is little knowledge in the public domain about their mechanical properties. In the presented experimental study we investigated the mechanical properties of several widely available meshes according to German Industrial Standards (DIN ISO). Six different meshes were assessed considering longitudinal and transverse direction in a uni-axial tensile test. Based on the force/displacement curve, the maximum force, breaking strain, and stiffness were computed. According to the maximum force the values were assigned to the groups weak and strong to determine a base for comparison. We discovered differences in the maximum force (11.1±6.4 to 100.9±9.4 N/cm), stiffness (0.3±0.1 to 4.6±0.5 N/mm), and breaking strain (150±6% to 340±20%) considering the direction of tension. The measured stiffness and breaking strength vary widely among available mesh materials for hernia repair, and most of the materials show significant anisotropy in their mechanical behavior. Considering the forces present in the abdominal wall, our results suggest that some meshes should be implanted in an appropriate orientation, and that information regarding the directionality of their mechanical properties should be provided by the manufacturers.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e46978. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the factors involved in cirrhotic ascites have been studied for a century, a number of observations are not understood, including the action of diuretics in the treatment of ascites and the ability of the plasma-ascitic albumin gradient to diagnose portal hypertension. This communication presents an explanation of ascites based solely on pathophysiological alterations within the peritoneal cavity. A quantitative model is described based on experimental vascular and intraperitoneal pressures, lymph flow, and peritoneal space compliance. The model's predictions accurately mimic clinical observations in ascites, including the magnitude and time course of changes observed following paracentesis or diuretic therapy.BMC Gastroenterology 03/2012; 12:26. · 2.42 Impact Factor