Do antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of colonic isolates of Bacteroides species change after antibiotic prophylaxis with cefoxitine during elective abdominal surgery?
ABSTRACT The objectives of the study were to investigate and compare the susceptibility profiles of preoperative and postoperative intestinal Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strains against antimicrobials to evaluate their resistance development patterns due to prophylactic antibiotic administration. Preoperative and postoperative stool samples were obtained from patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery with a "clean-contaminated" wound categorization. All patients received cefoxitin 2 g as prophylaxis. Isolates of Bacteroides species were identified. Susceptibility tests against ampicillin, piperacillin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, imipenem, and amoxicillin-clavulanate were performed. Stool samples were collected from 40 patients at two settings: before and after the operation. Most of the patients (53%) were operated on because of colorectal carcinoma and underwent surgery that included colectomy or anterior resection. Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were isolated in both samples obtained from 22 and 34 patients, respectively. In the present study 95% to 100%, 50% to 74%, 46% to 64%, and 18% to 35% of preoperatively isolated Bacteroides species were resistant to ampicillin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, and piperacillin, respectively. Although there were no statistically significant difference, postoperative strains were more resistant than preoperative isolates, and the resistance rates were found to be 95% to 100%, 55% to 82%, 46% to 86%, and 37% to 41%, respectively. Both Bacteroides species isolated from all specimens before and after the surgery were uniformly susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, imipenem, metronidazole, and chloramphenicol.Our data revealed that Bacteroides strains revealed high resistance to ampicillin, cefoxitin, piperacillin, and clindamycin. Metronidazole, imipenem, and amoxicillin-clavulanate seem highly effective against both Bacteroides species. Cefoxitin prophylaxis did not significantly increase the resistance patterns against antimicrobial agents.
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ABSTRACT: The presence of bacteria in the bile of patients undergoing biliary tract surgery has been proposed as associated to an increased incidence of postoperative complications. The present study was designed to determine whether colonization of the bile has an adverse effect in terms of postoperative infectious or noninfectious complications and mortality in a homogenous population of patients suffering from periampullary region malignancies, who all underwent resectional (curative) procedures. Between January 1997 and December 2002, 115 patients (n = 115) suffering from periampullary region malignancies underwent resectional procedures. Fifty-two of the above patients were referred having undergone preoperative internal biliary drainage. During the operation, bile was routinely isolated from the common bile duct and was sent for culture and sensitivity. Based on the bile culture results, the patients were divided in sterile and colonized group and were retrospectively compared in terms of postoperative outcome and mortality. Of the 115 bile cultures, 67 were colonized with bacteria and 48 were sterile. Postoperatively, 40 patients developed 35 noninfectious and 21 infectious complications. Univariate analysis did not disclose statistically significant differences in overall, noninfectious or infectious morbidity and mortality between the two groups of patients. Although not statistically significant, a higher incidence (22 vs 10%) of postoperative leaks in the colonized group of patients was noticed. Multiple regression analysis disclosed that colonized bile was independently related to the advanced age, preoperative biliary drainage presence, elevated preoperative serum bilirubin levels and low preoperative serum albumin levels but did not predispose to an increased postoperative morbidity, mortality, or reoperation rate. The present study did not conclude in any statistically significant differences in the postoperative infectious and noninfectious morbidity as well as mortality, between colonized and sterile groups of patients who underwent resectional procedures for malignancies of the periampullary region. Although internal biliary drainage introduces microorganisms into the biliary tree, this colonization does not increase the risk of either infectious or noninfectious complications or postoperative death. Thus, the likelihood of bacterobilia should not contraindicate the procedure in selected cases.Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 02/2007; 392(1):67-73. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In times of growing bacterial resistance against antimicrobiotic drugs the broad prescription of antibiotics in human medicine must be carefully considered. The perioperative antibiotic treatment is in the center of that conflict. On the one hand an efficient pathogen reduction for the preemptive treatment of infectious complications is desired but on the other hand it is suspected that this promotes the selection of multiresistant pathogens which could lead to an increase of more complicated nosocomial infections. The aim of this article is a critical appraisal of this subject on the basis of the 2012 guidelines of the German working group of Hygiene in Hospital and Practice (AWMF) and the 2010 recommendations of the Paul-Ehrlich-Gesellschaft.Der Anaesthesist 01/2014; · 0.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the antimicrobial resistance profile and the prevalence of resistance genes in Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis strains isolated from children's intestinal microbiota. The susceptibility of these bacteria to 10 antimicrobials was determined using an agar dilution method. β-lactamase activity was assessed by hydrolysis of the chromogenic cephalosporin of 114 Bacteriodales strains isolated from the fecal samples of 39 children, and the presence of resistance genes was tested using a PCR assay. All strains were susceptible to imipenem and metronidazole. The following resistance rates were observed: amoxicillin (93%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (47.3%), ampicillin (96.4%), cephalexin (99%), cefoxitin (23%), penicillin (99%), clindamycin (34.2%) and tetracycline (53.5%). P-lactamase production was verified in 92% of the evaluated strains. The presence of the cfiA, cepA, ermF, tetQ and nim genes was observed in 62.3%, 76.3%, 27%, 79.8% and 7.8% of the strains, respectively. Our results indicate an increase in the resistance to several antibiotics in intestinal Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis and demonstrate that these microorganisms harbor antimicrobial resistance genes that may be transferred to other susceptible intestinal strains.Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 01/2011; 66(4):543-7. · 1.59 Impact Factor