The vascular basis of the thoracodorsal artery perforator flap.
ABSTRACT Musculocutaneous perforator flaps, or more simply, perforator flaps, have become increasingly popular in microsurgery because of numerous advantages, including reduced donor-site morbidity. The thoracodorsal artery perforator flap is a cutaneous flap based on cutaneous perforators of the thoracodorsal vessels. The objective of this study was to document the vascular anatomy of this flap in human cadaveric studies.
The anatomy of the perforators of the thoracodorsal artery was studied using a modified lead oxide-gelatin injection technique in 15 fresh human cadavers. Each fresh cadaver was injected with lead oxide, gelatin, and water, and then cooled to 4 degrees C for 24 hours before dissection. The torso was dissected to identify all cutaneous perforators in the region of the back and flank.
The mean area of the primary and secondary zones supplied by the thoracodorsal artery was 255 cm2 and 345 cm2, respectively. The mean length of the major and minor axes was 18 cm and 13 cm, respectively. The maximum dimensions of the skin that could potentially be supplied by the thoracodorsal artery averaged 600 cm2, with a major axis length of 28 cm and a minor axis length of 27 cm. A mean number of 5.5 perforators with a mean diameter of 0.9 mm (range, 0.5 to 1.5 mm) supplied this zone. The ratio of musculocutaneous to septocutaneous perforators from the thoracodorsal artery was 3:2. The length of the thoracodorsal pedicle when harvested along with the perforator was 14.0 cm, with the vessel diameter being 2.8 mm at the origin. The most proximal perforator was seen at the level of the inferior angle of the scapula, 3.0 cm medial to the anterior border of the muscle. The intramuscular course of the perforators averaged 5 cm (range, 3 to 7 cm). Septocutaneous perforators from the thoracodorsal artery supplying the skin in addition to the musculocutaneous perforators were seen in 60 percent of specimens.
The thoracodorsal artery perforator flap is a reliable cutaneous perforator flap that is very useful in a wide variety of clinical applications.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Thoracodorsal artery perforator (TAP) flaps without latissimus dorsi muscle - have been used for reconstruction of the extremities, head and neck as free style flaps, and as pedicled flaps for reconstruction of the chest wall and axillary wounds. This retrospective study aimed to analyse the clinical applications and relevant anatomic findings of TAP flaps. METHODS: From April 2007 to August 2011, 67 free or pedicled TAP flaps were transferred in 67 patients for reconstruction of wounds of the extremities, chest wall and axilla. Eight were used as free flaps for reconstruction of extremities, and 59 used as pedicled flaps for reconstruction of axillary or chest wounds. Patient ages ranged from 7 to 55 years (26.04 ± 12.83). Perforator arteries were detected and identified with a hand-held Doppler. The size of flaps ranged from 6 by 9 to 14 by 18 cm ((8.66 ± 2.05) by (12.62 ± 2.03)). Flaps were designed with the perforator artery included, with all flaps based on one or two perforator arteries. RESULTS: All of the flaps survived. There were no problems with vascular spasm or occlusion. Significant venous congestion was not observed in any of the cases. Two cases developed minor wound dehiscence but healed with conservative therapy. None of the donor sites developed seromas. CONCLUSIONS: The thoracodorsal artery flap without associated latissimus dorsi muscle can provide a thin, large and reliable flap with robust blood supply. The TAP flap can significantly reduce donor site morbidity.Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 10/2012; · 1.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap has contributed to the efficient reconstruction of tissue defects that require a large amount of cutaneous tissue. The optimal reconstruction method should provide thin, and well-vascularized tissue with minimal donor-site morbidity. The indications for the use of this particular flap with other flaps are discussed in this article. Thirteen patients underwent soft tissue reconstruction using TDAP flaps between 2009 and 2011. Of those, there were four cases of antecubital burn contracture, three cases of axillary burn contracture, two cases of giant hair cell nevus of upper extremity, two cases of axillary reconstruction following severe recurrent hidradenitis, and two cases of crush injury. All patients were male and their ages ranged from 20 to 23 (average, 21 years). The mean follow-up period was 8 months (range, 4-22 months). All reconstructive procedures were completed without any major complications. Minor complications related to transfered flaps were wound dehiscence in one case, transient venous congestion in two cases. Minor complication related to the donor site was seroma in one case. The success rate was 100%, with satisfactory cosmetic results. The TDAP flap is a safe and extremely versatile flap that offers significant advantages in acute and delayed reconstruction. Although the vascular anatomy may be variable, free and pedicled TDAP flap is a versatile alternative for soft tissue defects. It adapts very well to the soft tissue defects with acceptable donor site scar.Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery 09/2012; 45(3):478-84.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Massive scars of face and neck cause severe esthetic and functional problems in patients. To achieve better outcomes, in this study, we demonstrate the use of the expanded lateral thoracic pedicle flap, which provides a large and thin flap that matches the face and neck area in color and texture with minimal donor site morbidities. METHODS: Firstly, a tissue expander was embedded in the lateral thoracic region. After water inflation, the expanded lateral thoracic flap was elevated as a pedicle flap and was then transferred to replace scar tissue of the head and neck. Doppler ultrasound examinations were employed pre-operatively to identify the path of the nutrient arteries of the flap. A surgical delay procedure was performed two weeks prior to flap transfer. RESULTS: Ten patients were treated with this method. For 9 patients, the outcomes were satisfactory and were not characterized by obvious flap contraction after 3-17 months of follow-up. The final patient sustained flap necrosis in the distal one-third of the flap. The donor sites were primarily closed in 80% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: The expanded lateral thoracic pedicle flap proved to be a reliable method with satisfactory outcomes for skin reconstruction of the face and neck.Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 03/2013; · 1.95 Impact Factor