Pushko, P, Tumpey, TM, Bu, F, Knell, J, Robinson, R and Smith, G. Influenza virus-like particles comprised of the HA, NA, and M1 proteins of H9N2 influenza virus induce protective immune responses in BALB/c mice. Vaccine 23: 5751-5759

Novavax, Inc., Vaccine Technologies, 1 Taft Court, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 01/2006; 23(50):5751-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.07.098
Source: PubMed


Avian influenza viruses represent a growing threat for an influenza pandemic. To develop recombinant vaccine for avian influenza of the H9N2 subtype, we expressed in insect cells virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of three structural proteins of influenza A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2) virus. Upon infection of Sf9 cells with recombinant baculoviruses, the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M1) proteins were co-expressed in the infected cells, self-assembled, and released into the culture medium as VLPs of 80-120nm in diameter. VLPs exhibited functional characteristics of influenza virus including hemagglutination and neuraminidase activities. In BALB/c mice, VLPs elicited serum antibodies specific for influenza A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2) virus and inhibited replication of the influenza virus after challenge. Thus, VLPs represent a potential strategy for the development of human vaccines against avian influenza H9N2 viruses.

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Available from: Gale Smith, Oct 13, 2014
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    • "Influenza VLPs have been generated by co-infecting insect cells with recombinant baculoviruses expressing structural influenza proteins of matrix 1 (M1)/hemagglutinin (HA), HA/neuraminidase (NA)/M1, or HA/NA/M1/matrix 2 (M2). [14,15,21,28,33]. Influenza VLPs have been found to induce protective immunity in preclinical and clinical studies [20]. "
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    • "Recent studies have demonstrated that H5N1, H3N2 and H9N2 VLP vaccines comprised of only three influenza virus proteins, hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix 1 (M1) can be expressed in insect cells. These vaccines elicited high-titer antibodies and protected against challenge with lethal viruses (Bright et al., 2007, 2008; Pushko et al., 2005). In addition, VLPs containing the influenza glycoprotein HA and the influenza matrix protein M1 induced high titers of virus-specific antibodies in vaccinated mice or ferrets and provided immunized animals with protection against otherwise lethal experimental infections (Ross et al., 2009). "
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    • "The genes were codon optimized for optimal expression in insect cells and biochemically synthesized for A(H5N1) HA, NA, M1 (Geneart AG, Regensburg, Germany); and for A(H7N9) and A(H7N3) HA and NA genes (Genscript, Piscataway, NJ). Influenza VLP were produced using full length, HA and NA genes specific for each strain combined with common influenza A/Indonesia/05/2005 M1 as described [10] [11]. Full length HA, NA, and M1 genes were cloned between BamHI–HindIII sites in pFastBac1 baculovirus transfer vector plasmid (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) such that each gene was under the transcriptional control of the Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) polyhedrin promoter. "
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