Keratins 8 and 18 protect the liver from stress. Keratin 8 and 18 variants in 17 of 467 liver disease explants and 2 of 349 blood bank controls were previously reported in 5 analyzed exonic regions. We asked whether mutations were present in the remaining 10 exons of keratins 8 and 18.
Exonic regions were polymerase chain reaction-amplified from genomic DNA, isolated from the above-mentioned 2 cohorts, and analyzed for the presence of mutations. Mutant keratins were also studied biochemically.
We identified 10 novel keratin 8 and 18 heterozygous variants in 44 of 467 explants and 11 of 349 controls: keratin 18 deletion (delta64-71), a keratin 8 frameshift that truncates the last 14 amino acids; 8 missense keratin 8 and 18 alterations; and several new polymorphisms. The most common variant, keratin 8 R340H, at the highly conserved R340 was found in 30 of 467 explants and 10 of 349 controls (P = .02) and was confirmed in the diseased livers by generation of an R340H-specific antibody. Germline transmission and variant protein expression were verified. The mutations involved a variety of liver diseases, and some variants had an ethnic background preponderance. Mutations that introduced disulfide bonds (keratin 8 G61C or R453C) decreased keratin solubility, particularly after oxidative stress, whereas others decreased keratin 8 phosphorylation (keratin 8 G433S).
The overall frequency of keratin 8 and 18 variants was 12.4% in 467 liver disease explants and 3.7% in 349 blood bank controls (P < .0001). Variants can alter keratin solubility or phosphorylation and may render individuals susceptible to end-stage liver disease, depending on their genetic background and exposure to other insults, such as alcohol or viral infection.
"Non-diseased and diabetic human liver tissues were obtained from the National Disease Research Interchange. Cirrhotic liver explants were obtained from patients who underwent liver transplantation for end-stage liver disease (Ku et al., 2005). Animal use was approved by, and performed in accordance with, the University Committee on Use and Care of Animals at the University of Michigan. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysine acetylation is an important posttranslational modification that regulates microtubules and microfilaments, but its effects on intermediate filament proteins (IFs) are unknown. We investigated the regulation of keratin 8 (K8), a type II simple epithelial IF, by lysine acetylation. K8 was basally acetylated and the highly conserved Lys-207 was a major acetylation site. K8 acetylation regulated filament organization and decreased keratin solubility. Acetylation of K8 was rapidly responsive to changes in glucose levels and was up-regulated in response to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) depletion and in diabetic mouse and human livers. The NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) associated with and deacetylated K8. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of SIRT2 decreased K8 solubility and affected filament organization. Inhibition of K8 Lys-207 acetylation resulted in site-specific phosphorylation changes of K8. Therefore, K8 acetylation at Lys-207, a highly conserved residue among type II keratins and other IFs, is up-regulated upon hyperglycemia and down-regulated by SIRT2. Keratin acetylation provides a new mechanism to regulate keratin filaments, possibly via modulating keratin phosphorylation.
The Journal of Cell Biology 01/2013; 200(3). DOI:10.1083/jcb.201209028 · 9.83 Impact Factor
"K8 R341H variant was the most common variant and was found in 8 subjects (variant frequency 3.1%), which lies well below the frequencies seen in US Caucasians with end-stage liver disease or acute liver failure (5.1 and 7.2%, respectively, Table
[6,19]. On the other hand, similar variant frequencies were observed in US control subjects as well as in a German cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis C (Table
[18,19]. Similarly, the frequency of K8 G62C variant found in our cohort is comparable to their occurrence in a large cohort of German control subjects (1.9 vs 1.6-1.8%, "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Keratins 8/18 (K8/K18) are established hepatoprotective proteins and K8/K18 variants predispose to development and adverse outcome of multiple liver disorders. The importance of K8/K18 in alcoholic liver disease as well as in established cirrhosis remains unknown.
We analyzed the K8 mutational hot-spots in 261 prospectively followed-up patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (mean follow-up 65 months). PCR-amplified samples were pre-screened by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and conspicuous samples were sequenced.
67 patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 133 died. Fourteen patients harbored amino-acid-altering K8 variants (5xG62C, 8xR341H). The presence of K8 variants did not associate with development of HCC (log-rank=0.5) or death (log-rank=0.7) and no significant associations were obtained for the single K8 variants after a correction for multiple testing was performed.
Keratin variants are expressed in a low percentage of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and do not influence HCC development. Further studies conducted in larger prospective cohorts are needed to find out whether presence of K8 R341H variant predispose to non-HCC-related liver mortality.
"Some of the other K8 mutants also inhibited K8 phosphorylation (R453C [all three kinases] and G433S [p42]), but the most prominent effect was noted in G61C (Fig. 4 B). Moreover, K8 I62V, which is a variant found at higher frequency in controls as compared with liver disease patients (Ku et al., 2005), has similar S73 in vitro phosphorylation by the SAPKs as WT K8 (unpublished data). We further substantiated the effect of K8 G61C by comparing K8 S73 phosphorylation in BHK cells cotransfected with WT or kinase-inactive p38. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratin 8 (K8) variants predispose to human liver injury via poorly understood mechanisms. We generated transgenic mice that overexpress the human disease-associated K8 Gly61-to-Cys (G61C) variant and showed that G61C predisposes to liver injury and apoptosis and dramatically inhibits K8 phosphorylation at serine 73 (S73) via stress-activated kinases. This led us to generate mice that overexpress K8 S73-to-Ala (S73A), which mimicked the susceptibility of K8 G61C mice to injury, thereby providing a molecular link between K8 phosphorylation and disease-associated mutation. Upon apoptotic stimulation, G61C and S73A hepatocytes have persistent and increased nonkeratin proapoptotic substrate phosphorylation by stress-activated kinases, compared with wild-type hepatocytes, in association with an inability to phosphorylate K8 S73. Our findings provide the first direct link between patient-related human keratin variants and liver disease predisposition. The highly abundant cytoskeletal protein K8, and possibly other keratins with the conserved S73-containing phosphoepitope, can protect tissue from injury by serving as a phosphate "sponge" for stress-activated kinases and thereby provide a novel nonmechanical function for intermediate filament proteins.
The Journal of Cell Biology 08/2006; 174(1):115-25. DOI:10.1083/jcb.200602146 · 9.83 Impact Factor
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