Progressive intestinal, neurological and psychiatric problems in two adult males with cerebral creatine deficiency caused by an SLC6A8 mutation.
- SourceAvailable from: Mario Mastrangelo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Creatine metabolism disorders include guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency, arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency, and the creatine transporter (CT1-encoded by SLC6A8 gene) deficiency. Epilepsy is one of the main symptoms in GAMT and CT1 deficiency, whereas the occurrence of febrile convulsions in infancy is a relatively common presenting symptom in all the three above-mentioned diseases. GAMT deficiency results in a severe early onset epileptic encephalopathy with development arrest, neurologic deterioration, drug-resistant seizures, movement disorders, mental disability, and autistic-like behavior. In this disorder, epilepsy and associated abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) are more responsive to substitutive treatment with creatine monohydrate than to conventional antiepileptic drugs. AGAT deficiency is mainly characterized by mental retardation and severe language disorder without epilepsy. In CT1 deficiency epilepsy is generally less severe than in GAMT deficiency. All creatine disorders can be investigated through measurement of creatine metabolites in body fluids, brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS), and molecular genetic techniques. Blood guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) assessment and brain H-MRS examination should be part of diagnostic workup for all patients presenting with epileptic encephalopathy of unknown origin. In girls with learning and/or intellectual disabilities with or without epilepsy, SLC6A8 gene assessment should be part of the diagnostic procedures. The aims of this review are the following: (1) to describe the electroclinical features of epilepsy occurring in inborn errors of creatine metabolism; and (2) to delineate the metabolic alterations associated with GAMT, AGAT, and CT1 deficiency and the role of a substitutive therapeutic approach on their clinical and electroencephalographic epileptic patterns.Epilepsia 11/2012; 54(2). DOI:10.1111/epi.12020 · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern of cytosolic brain specific-BB-CK and ubiquitous mitochondrial-creatine kinases (uMt-CK) in developing human spinal cord. Consequently, we studied the effects of creatine treatment on cultured fetal human spinal cord tissue. We found that both CK isoforms were expressed in fetal spinal cord at all time points investigated (5 to 11.5 weeks post conception) and correspondingly specific CK activity was detected. Chronic creatine exposure resulted in significantly higher densities of GABA-immunoreactive neurons in the cultures, while total neuronal cell density was not altered, suggesting a differentiation inducing mechanism of creatine supplementation. Taken together, our observations favour the view that the creatine phosphocreatine system plays an important role in the developing CNS.Brain Research 04/2007; 1137(1):50-7. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.12.038 · 2.83 Impact Factor
Article: Autism-lessons from the X chromosome[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recognized cases of autism spectrum disorders are on the rise. It is unclear whether this increase is attributable to secular trends in biological susceptibility, or to a change in diagnostic practices and recognition. One hint concerning etiological influences is the universally reported male excess (in the range of 4:1 to 10:1). Evidence suggests that genetic influences from the X chromosome play a crucial role in engendering this male vulnerability. In this review, we discuss three categories of genetic disease that highlight the importance of X-linked genes in the manifestation of an autistic phenotype: aneuploides (Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome), trinucleotide expansions (Fragile X syndrome) and nucleotide mutations (Rett Syndrome, Neuroligins 3 & 4, and SLC6A8). The lessons from these diseases include an understanding of autistic features as a broad phenotype rather than as a single clinical entity, the role of multiple genes either alone or in concert with the manifestation of autistic features, and the role of epigenetic factors such as imprinting and X-inactivation in the expression of disease severity. Better understanding of the clinical phenotypes of social cognition and the molecular neurogenetics of X-linked gene disorders will certainly provide additional tools for understanding autism in the years to come.Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 01/2007; 1(3):183-93. DOI:10.1093/scan/nsl028 · 5.88 Impact Factor