Clozapine, agranulocytosis, and benign ethnic neutropenia.

Postgraduate medical journal (Impact Factor: 1.54). 10/2005; 81(959):545-6. DOI: 10.1136/pgmj.2004.031161
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    ABSTRACT: Although many patients with schizophrenia fail to respond adequately to trials of 2 or more antipsychotics, utilization of clozapine for these patients remains low, despite recommendations for its use by accepted treatment guidelines. Some experts estimate that 5-10 times more patients could benefit from clozapine than who are now receiving it. Learning how to manage the unique side effect profile of clozapine can potentially remove barriers to prescribing this agent and thus unlock its unique therapeutic efficacy for more patients.
    CNS spectrums 08/2014; 19(4):279-81. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immunomodulatory effects of clozapine (CLZ), antipsychotic drug, were investigated in vivo using female Balb/c mice. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of CLZ, antipsychotic drug, following daily intraperitoneal injection to female Balb/c mice over a period of 21 days. Mice were divided into five groups, eight animals per group. Group I, served as a control group, received only the vehicle. Groups II-V received a daily intraperitoneal dose of CLZ (1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively) over a period of 21 days. CLZ has shown a significant decrease in the animal body weight, and it showed a significant decrease in the percentage of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes while circulating monocytes were increased. The immunotoxicity has been also assessed by evaluating spleen cellularity, humoral immune response to a foreign antigen using sheep red blood cells and delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. The results showed a marked suppression in these responses in CLZ-treated mice compared with the control group. Detectable changes have also been noticed in the histology of the footpad tissue and spleen. Results showed significant immunomuodulatory effects of CLZ when used in Balb/c mice.
    The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Forty years of research and clinical practice have proved dopamine (DA) receptor antagonists to be effective agents in the treatment of Tourette's syndrome (TS), allowing a significant tic reduction of about 70%. Their main effect seems to be mediated by the blockade of the striatal DA-D2 receptors. Various typical and atypical agents are available and there is still discord between experts about which of them should be considered as first choice. In addition, there are suggestions to use DA receptor agonists such as pergolide or non-DA-modulating agents. The present chapter is focusing on the clinical pharmacology of DA-modulating agents in the treatment of TS. The introduction outlines their clinical relevance and touches on the hypotheses of the role of DA in the pathophysiology of TS. Subsequently, general information about the mechanisms of action and adverse effects are provided. The central part of the chapter forms a systematic review of all DA-modulating agents used in the treatment of TS, including an overview of studies on their effectiveness, and a critical discussion of their specific adverse effects. The present chapter closes with a summary of the body of evidence and a description of the resulting recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of TS.
    International Review of Neurobiology 01/2013; 112:281-349. · 2.46 Impact Factor


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