Neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants <32 weeks’ gestation between 1993 and 1998. Pediatrics

Women & Infants Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, United States
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 10/2005; 116(3):635-43. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2004-2247
Source: PubMed


This study evaluated the impact of changes in perinatal management on neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18 to 22 months' corrected age of low gestation (22-26 weeks) and higher gestation (27-32 weeks) extremely low birth weight infants (401-1000 g birth weight) who were cared for in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network during 3 epochs (1993-1994, 1995-1996, and 1997-1998). It was hypothesized that outcomes would improve over the 3 epochs.
A multicenter cohort study was conducted of the outcomes of 3785 infants with assessments at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. Regression analyses were completed to evaluate for epoch effects, gestational age effects, and time plus gestational age interaction. Regression analyses were also performed to identify the independent associations of epoch and 4 study perinatal interventions: antenatal steroids (yes, no), high-frequency ventilation (yes, no), number of days to regain birth weight as a marker of nutritional intake, and postnatal steroids for treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (yes, no) with outcomes.
Survival improved for both the low (55%-61%) and higher (82%-86%) gestational age groups during the 3 epochs. Regression analyses indicated that the decreased risk for adverse outcome was significantly lower in epoch 2 compared with epoch 1 with decreased rates of low Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI) and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Antenatal steroids were associated with decreased risk for moderate to severe cerebral palsy (CP) and low Bayley Psychomotor Development Index. High-frequency ventilation was associated with a low Bayley MDI and NDI, and postnatal steroids were associated with moderate to severe CP, any CP, low Bayley MDI, low Bayley Psychomotor Development Index, and increased NDI.
Survival of extremely low birth weight infants improved between 1993 and 1998. Although some outcomes remained unchanged, the rates of low Bayley MDI scores and NDI improved. Antenatal steroid administration was the only study intervention associated with improved outcomes.

6 Reads
  • Source
    • "Although the survival of very preterm infants has increased significantly during recent decades (Vohr et al., 2005), many of these infants still develop with neurological impairments. Neonatal neurological examination is challenged by the non-specificity of signs of neural dysfunction (discussed above) and, consequently, complementary biomarkers for adverse outcome have been sought from neuroimaging and neurophysiology. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mysteries of early development of cortical processing in humans have started to unravel with the help of new non-invasive brain research tools like multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this review, we evaluate, within a wider neuroscientific and clinical context, the value of MEG in studying normal and disturbed functional development of the human somatosensory system. The combination of excellent temporal resolution and good localization accuracy provided by MEG has, in the case of somatosensory studies, enabled the differentiation of activation patterns from the newborn's primary (SI) and secondary somatosensory (SII) areas. Furthermore, MEG has shown that the functioning of both SI and SII in newborns has particular immature features in comparison with adults. In extremely preterm infants, the neonatal MEG response from SII also seems to potentially predict developmental outcome: those lacking SII responses at term show worse motor performance at age 2 years than those with normal SII responses at term. In older children with unilateral early brain lesions, bilateral alterations in somatosensory cortical activation detected in MEG imply that the impact of a localized insult may have an unexpectedly wide effect on cortical somatosensory networks. The achievements over the last decade show that MEG provides a unique approach for studying the development of the somatosensory system and its disturbances in childhood. MEG well complements other neuroimaging methods in studies of cortical processes in the developing brain.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 03/2014; 8:158. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00158 · 3.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "It is unclear, however, whether multiple births are at increased risk for neurologic impairment compared with birth weight–matched singletons. Some reports indicated a higher rate of neurodevelopmental impairments for preterm multiple births [56], but others did not [92]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prediction of outcome after preterm birth is critical, but remains difficult, particularly in the early postnatal period. The ability to predict outcome improves parental counseling and selection of infants for early therapeutic strategies aiming at preventing or ameliorating cerebral injury. This review gives an overview of the spectrum and severity of neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and psychosocial outcomes, with discussion of predictors of outcome and, in particular, the clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging predictors. A detailed neurologic examination of infants is a valuable predictive tool in terms of later moderate to severe neurodevelopmental impairments; however, it may be limited in the immediate newborn period. Electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and clinical risk factors for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome have been identified. Good prediction is usually achieved for major functional disabilities in early childhood, but is poorer for moderate or mild long-term outcome. Future research should focus on the long-term quality of life, academic achievement, and the influence of the sociocultural environment. More emphasis should be placed on genetic diversity as a modifying factor for the large variability in outcome.
    Pediatric Neurology 07/2009; 40(6):413-9. DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2009.01.008 · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Until recently, objective investigation of the functional development of the human brain in vivo was challenged by the lack of noninvasive research methods. Consequently, fairly little is known about cortical processing of sensory information even in healthy infants and children. Furthermore, mechanisms by which early brain insults affect brain development and function are poorly understood. In this thesis, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate development of cortical somatosensory functions in healthy infants, very premature infants at risk for neurological disorders, and adolescents with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). In newborns, stimulation of the hand activated both the contralateral primary (SIc) and secondary somatosensory cortices (SIIc). The activation patterns differed from those of adults, however. Some of the earliest SIc responses, constantly present in adults, were completely lacking in newborns and the effect of sleep stage on SIIc responses differed. These discrepancies between newborns and adults reflect the still developmental stage of the newborns’ somatosensory system. Its further maturation was demonstrated by a systematic transformation of the SIc response pattern with age. The main early adult­like components were present by age two. In very preterm infants, at term age, the SIc and SIIc were activated at similar latencies as in healthy fullterm newborns, but the SIc activity was weaker in the preterm group. The SIIc response was absent in four out of the six infants with brain lesions of the underlying hemisphere. Determining the prognostic value of this finding remains a subject for future studies, however. In the CP adolescents with pure subcortical lesions, contrasting their unilateral symptoms, the SIc responses of both hemispheres differed from those of controls: For example the distance between SIc representation areas for digits II and V was shorter bilaterally. In four of the five CP patients with cortico­subcortical brain lesions, no normal early SIc responses were evoked by stimulation of the palsied hand. The varying differences in neuronal functions, underlying the common clinical symptoms, call for investigation of more precisely designed rehabilitation strategies resting on knowledge about individual functional alterations in the sensorimotor networks. Lääketieteellisen teknologian kehitys on vasta viime vuosina mahdollistanut lasten aivotoiminnan tarkan, objektiivisen tutkimuksen. Näin ollen esimerkiksi aistiärsykkeiden aivoprosessoinnista vastasyntyneillä tiedetään varsin vähän, samoin kuin monien aivotoimintojen kehittymisestä lapsen kasvaessa. Myös ymmärrys erilaisten aivovaurioiden vaikutuksesta kehittyviin aivoihin on puutteellista. Magnetoenkefalografialla (MEG) tutkitaan aivohermosolujen toimintaa mittaamalla niissä syntyvien sähkövirtojen tuottamia magneettikenttiä pään ulkopuolelta. Väitöskirjassa MEG:n avulla tutkittiin tuntoaivokuoren toimintaa vastasyntyneillä ja tämän toiminnan kehitystä ensimmäisten elinvuosien aikana. Lisäksi tuntoaivokuoren toimintaa tarkasteltiin pikkukeskosena syntyneillä vauvoilla sekä nuorilla, joilla on varhaisen aivovaurion aiheuttama toispuoleinen CP-vamma. Jo vastasyntyneellä useat aivoalueet aktivoituivat käden alueen kosketusärsykkeen jälkeen. Tuntoaivokuoren aktiivisuus poikkesi kuitenkin oleellisesti aikuisesta: tietyt aikuistyyppiset aivovasteet puuttuivat vastasyntyneiltä täysin heijastaen vastasyntyneen vauvan hermoston keskeneräistä kehitysvaihetta. Tuntoaivovasteet kehittyivät iän myötä järjestelmällisesti siten, että kaksivuotiailla ne alkoivat morfologisesti muistuttaa aikuisten vasteita. Pikkukeskosten primaarisen tuntoaivokuoren vaste oli lasketussa ajassa heikompi kuin terveillä täysaikaisilla vauvoilla, mikä voi johtua pienemmästä aktivoituneesta hermosolujoukosta tai aktivaation epäsynkroniasta. Sekundaarisen tuntoaivokuoren vasteen puuttuminen liittyi poikkeaviin ultraääni- ja magneettikuvauslöydöksiin. Tämän havainnon ennusteellista merkitystä selvitetään parhaillaan seurantatutkimuksella. CP-vammaisilla nuorilla tuntoaivovasteissa havaittiin verrokkeihin nähden useita poikkeavuuksia, jotka olivat osin laaja-alaisempia kuin oli pääteltävissä kliinisistä oireista tai aivojen rakenteellisesta vauriosta. Esimerkiksi potilailla, joiden sairauden taustalla oli subkortikaalinen aivovaurio, etu- ja pikkusormien edustusalueet tuntoaivokuorella olivat verrokkeihin nähden lähempänä toisiaan sekä vaurion puoleisessa että vastakkaisessa aivopuoliskossa. Aivojen erilaisten rakenteellisten vaurioiden aiheuttamien toiminnallisten muutosten tarkempi ymmärtäminen voi osoittautua merkittäväksi CP-potilaiden kuntoutuksen ja hoidon yksilöllisessä räätälöinnissä.
Show more

Similar Publications