A significant decrease in plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is one of the most robust hallmarks of aging and may contribute to functional changes associated with senescence. This study examined the role of IGF-I in the maintenance of adult dendritic morphology.
We utilized a model of the aging-related decrease in plasma IGF-I to examine whether such a decrease, in itself, leads to dendritic changes in the cerebral cortex. The dw/dw rat, originally of the Lewis strain, suffers from a spontaneous mutation in which growth hormone (GH) production is severely decreased. Since GH is responsible for the production of circulating IGF-I by the liver, these animals are deficient in plasma IGF-I. Homozygous dw/dw rats were administered porcine GH to sustain IGF-I levels during development and then GH injections were stopped as adults in order to examine the effects of adult-onset GH and IGF-I deficiency. Animals sacrificed after two or eight weeks of GH and IGF-I deficiency were compared to age-matched dw/dw animals that received GH both developmentally and throughout adulthood (GH/IGF-I replete). The dendritic arbors of pyramidal neurons in cingulate cortex were labeled by intracellular injection and reconstructed in three dimensions.
Comparing GH/IGF-I replete and deficient dw/dw rats, we found no differences in the apical or basal arbors of either layer two or layer five pyramidal neurons.
These findings indicate that a decrease in plasma levels of IGF-I is not sufficient in itself to produce dendritic changes like those seen in aging animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A review of the literature in both animals and humans reveals that changes in sex hormone have often been associated with changes in behavioral and mental abilities. Previously published research from our laboratory, and others, provides strong evidence that P300 (latency) event-related potential (ERP), a marker of neuronal processing speed, is an accurate predictor of early memory impairment in both males and females across a wide age range. It is our hypothesis, given the vast literature on the subject, that coupling growth hormones (insulin-like growth factor-I, (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3)), P300 event-related potential and test of variables of attention (TOVA) are important neuroendocrinological predictors of early cognitive decline in a clinical setting. To support this hypothesis, we utilized structural equation modeling (SEM) parameter estimates to determine the relationship between aging and memory, as mediated by growth hormone (GH) levels (indirectly measured through the insulin-like growth factor system), P300 latency and TOVA, putative neurocognitive predictors tested in this study. An SEM was developed hypothesizing a causal directive path, leading from age to memory, mediated by IGF-1 and IGF-BP3, P300 latency (speed), and TOVA decrements. An increase in age was accompanied by a decrease in IGF-1 and IGF-BP3, an increase in P300 latency, a prolongation in TOVA response time, and a decrease in memory functioning. Moreover, independent of age, decreases in IGF-1 and IGF-BP3, were accompanied by increases in P300 latency, and were accompanied by increases in TOVA response time. Finally, increases in P300 latency were accompanied by decreased memory function, both directly and indirectly through mediation of TOVA response time. In summary, this is the first report utilizing SEM to reveal the finding that aging affects memory function negatively through mediation of decreased IGF-1 and IGF-BP3, and increased P300 latency (delayed attention and processing speed).
Age 10/2007; 29(2-3):55-67. DOI:10.1007/s11357-007-9030-3 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggest that the age-related decline in circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels significantly contribute to vascular dysfunction in aging by impairing cellular oxidative stress resistance pathways. Obesity in elderly individuals is increasing at alarming rates, and there is evidence suggesting that elderly individuals are more vulnerable to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of obesity than younger individuals. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging, GH/IGF-1 deficiency, and obesity interact to promote the development of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. To test the hypothesis that low circulating GH/IGF-1 levels exacerbate the pro-oxidant and proinflammatory vascular effects of obesity, GH/IGF-1-deficient Lewis dwarf rats and heterozygous control rats were fed either a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 months. Feeding an HFD resulted in similar relative weight gains and increases in body fat content in Lewis dwarf rats and control rats. HFD-fed Lewis dwarf rats exhibited a relative increase in blood glucose levels, lower insulin, and impaired glucose tolerance as compared with HFD-fed control rats. Analysis of serum cytokine expression signatures indicated that chronic GH/IGF-1 deficiency exacerbates HFD-induced inflammation. GH/IGF-1 deficiency also exacerbated HFD-induced endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and expression of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, ICAM-1) in aortas of Lewis dwarf rats. Overall, our results are consistent with the available clinical and experimental evidence suggesting that GH/IGF-1 deficiency renders the cardiovascular system more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of obesity.
The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 11/2011; 67(6):553-64. DOI:10.1093/gerona/glr197 · 5.42 Impact Factor
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