Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1-amino-1,1-bisphosphonates derived from fatty acids against Trypanosoma cruzi targeting farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase.
ABSTRACT We have investigated the effect of a series of 1-amino-1,1-bisphosphonates derived from fatty acids against proliferation of the clinically more relevant form of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease). Some of these drugs were potent inhibitors against the intracellular form of the parasite, exhibiting IC50 values at low micromolar level. Cellular activity was associated with the inhibition of enzymatic activity of T. cruzi farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase. As bisphosphonate-containing drugs are FDA-approved for the treatment of bone resorption disorders, their potential innocuousness makes them good candidates to control tropical diseases.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 02/2009; 3(7):e484. · 4.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chagas disease or American Trypanosomiasis, a parasitic infection typically spread by triatomine bugs, affects millions of people throughout Latin America. Current chemotherapy based on the nitroaromatic compounds, benznidazole and nifurtimox provides unsatisfactory results and suffers from considerable side effects and low efficacy. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new drugs to treat this neglected disease. Over the last two decades, new advances and understanding in the biology and the biochemistry of Trypanosoma cruzi has allowed the identification of multiple targets for Chagas disease chemotherapy. This review summarizes antichagasic agents obtained based on i) target metabolic biochemical pathways or parasite specific enzymes, ii) natural products and its derivatives, iii) design and synthesis of lead compounds. Related patents filed and issued from 2000 to early 2006 are also discussed. Most of them claimed inhibitors on specific parasite targets such as cysteine proteinase, sterol biosynthesis, protein farnesyltransferase, etc. Particularly, those related to cysteine proteinase inhibitors were the most represented. Natural products also displayed many anti-T cruzi lead compounds. In addition, a few patents claiming natural or synthetic compounds with antichagasic activity, disclosed no specific target. However, only a small proportion of all these patents displayed specific data of biological trypanocidal activity.Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery 02/2007; 2(1):19-51.
Article: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of sulfur-containing 1,1-bisphosphonic acids as antiparasitic agents.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As part of our efforts aimed at searching for new antiparasitic agents, 2-alkylmercaptoethyl-1,1-bisphosphonate derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, and Toxoplasma gondii, the responsible agent for toxoplasmosis. Many of these sulfur-containing bisphosphonates were potent inhibitors against the intracellular form of T. cruzi, the clinically more relevant replicative form of this parasite, and tachyzoites of T. gondii targeting T. cruzi or T. gondii farnesyl diphosphate synthases (FPPSs), which constitute valid targets for the chemotherapy of these parasitic diseases. Interestingly, long chain length sulfur-containing bisphosphonates emerged as relevant antiparasitic agents. Taking compounds 37, 38, and 39 as representative members of this class of drugs, they exhibited ED(50) values of 15.8 μM, 12.8 μM, and 22.4 μM, respectively, against amastigotes of T. cruzi. These cellular activities matched the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of the target enzyme (TcFPPS) having IC(50) values of 6.4 μM, 1.7 μM, and 0.097 μM, respectively. In addition, these compounds were potent anti-Toxoplasma agents. They had ED(50) values of 2.6 μM, 1.2 μM, and 1.8 μM, respectively, against T. gondii tachyzoites, while they exhibited a very potent inhibitory action against the target enzyme (TgFPPS) showing IC(50) values of 0.024 μM, 0.025 μM, and 0.021 μM, respectively. Bisphosphonates bearing a sulfoxide unit at C-3 were also potent anti-Toxoplasma agents, particularly those bearing long aliphatic chains such as 43-45, which were also potent antiproliferative drugs against tachyzoites of T. gondii. These compounds inhibited the enzymatic activity of the target enzyme (TgFPPS) at the very low nanomolar range. These bisphosphonic acids have very good prospective not only as lead drugs but also as potential chemotherapeutic agents.European journal of medicinal chemistry 12/2012; 60C:431-440. · 3.27 Impact Factor