Donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine are three drugs with acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting activity that are currently being used to treat patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. We have studied the neuroprotective effects of these drugs, in comparison with nicotine, on cell death caused by beta-amyloid (Abeta) and okadaic acid, two models that are relevant to Alzheimer's pathology, in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Galantamine and donepezil showed a U-shaped neuroprotective curve against okadaic acid toxicity; maximum protection was achieved at 0.3 microM galantamine and at 1 microM donepezil; at higher concentrations, protection was diminished. Rivastigmine showed a concentration-dependent effect; maximum protection was achieved at 3 microM. When apoptosis was induced by Abeta25-35, galantamine, donepezil, and rivastigmine showed maximum protection at the same concentrations: 0.3, 1, and 3 microM, respectively. Nicotine also afforded protection against Abeta- and okadaic acid-induced toxicity. The neuroprotective effects of galantamine, donepezil, and nicotine were reversed by the alpha7 nicotinic antagonist methyllycaconitine but not by the alpha4beta2 nicotinic antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt blocker 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) reversed the protective effects of galantamine, donepezil, and nicotine but not that of rivastigmine. In contrast, the bcl-2 antagonist ethyl[2-amino-6-bromo-4-(1-cyano-2-ethoxy-2-oxoethyl)]-4H-chromene-3-carboxylate (HA 14-1) reversed the protective effects of the three AChE inhibitors and that of nicotine. Our results show that galantamine, donepezil, and rivastigmine afford neuroprotection through a mechanism that is likely unrelated to AChE inhibition. Such neuroprotection seemed to be linked to alpha7 nicotinic receptors and the PI3K-Akt pathway in the case of galantamine and donepezil but not for rivastigmine.
"As reported previously (Arias et al., 2005; Castorina et al., 2010; Pettifer et al., 2004), the A␤ 25-35 peptide caused strong loss of cell viability, as indicated by the significant and progressive decrease of cell viability in SH-SY5Y after treatment with a low concentration of the peptide ( "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous work we have shown that exposure to aluminum (Al) chloride (AlCl3) enhanced the neurotoxicity of the amyloid beta25-35 fragment (Abeta25-35) in neuroblastoma cells and affected the expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related genes. Caffein, a compound endowed with beneficial effects against AD, exerts neuroprotection primarily through its antagonist activity on A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR), although it also inhibits A1Rs with similar potency. Still, studies on the specific involvement of these receptors in neuroprotection in a model of combined neurotoxicity (Abeta25-35+AlCl3) are missing. To address this issue, cultured SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Abeta25-35+AlCl3 were assessed for cell viability, morphology, intracellular ROS activity and expression of apoptosis-, stress- and AD-related proteins. To define the role of A1R and A2ARs, pretreatment with caffein, specific receptor antagonists (DPCPX or SCH58261) or siRNA-mediated gene knockdown were delivered. Results indicate that AlCl3 treatment exacerbated Abeta25-35 toxicity, increased ROS production, lipid peroxidation, β-secretase-1 (BACE1) and amyloid precursor protein (APP). Interestingly, SCH58261 successfully prevented toxicity associated to Abeta25-35 only, whereas pretreatment with both DPCPX and SCH58261 was required to fully avert Abeta25-35+AlCl3-induced damage, suggesting that A1Rs might also be critically involved in protection during combined toxicity. The effects of caffein were mimicked by both N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant, and desferrioxamine, likely acting through distinct mechanisms. Altogether, our data establish a novel protective function associated with A1R inhibition in the setting of combined Abeta25-35+AlCl3 neurotoxicity, and expand our current knowledge on the potential beneficial role of caffein to prevent AD progression in subjects environmentally exposed to aluminum.
The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 07/2014; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2014.07.009 · 4.05 Impact Factor
"In addition, Cheung et al.  reported that undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells are more appropriate for studying neurotoxicity or neuroprotection effect, because the differentiation increases the tolerance to the aggression agents . Different aggression agents can be used to evaluate neuroprotective capacity   , glutamate being one of them. This endogenous neurotransmitter has distinct roles in the central nervous system, including potentiation and plasticity of the brain via N-methyl-daspartate (NMDA) receptors . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several evidences suggest that enhanced oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and/or progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time whether both extracts from tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaves and their isolated steroidal alkaloids (tomatine and tomatidine) afford neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this protection. Steroidal alkaloids from tomato are well known for their cholinesterases' inhibitory capacity and the results showed that both purified extracts and isolated compounds, at non-toxic concentrations for gastric (AGS), intestinal (Caco-2) and neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells, have the capacity to preserve mitochondria membrane potential and to decrease reactive oxygen species levels of SH-SY5Y glutamate-insulted cells. Moreover, the use of specific antagonists of cholinergic receptors allowed observing that tomatine and tomatidine can interact with nicotinic receptors, specifically with the α7 type. No effect on muscarinic receptors was noticed. In addition to the selective cholinesterase's inhibition revealed by the compounds/extracts, these results provide novel and important insights into their neuroprotective mechanism. This work also demystifies the applicability of these compounds in therapeutics, by demonstrating that their toxicity was overestimated for long time.
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 01/2014; 140:106-115. DOI:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.12.013 · 3.63 Impact Factor
"Thus, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine showed a protective effect after Aβ or thapsigargin stimulus in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, as well as in bovine chromaffin cells . Additionally, donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine showed a neuroprotective effect against okadaic acid in undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells . Huperzine A, one of the parent compounds from which huprines were designed, showed a protective effect after inducing oxygen-glucose deprivation in pheochromocytoma cells, most likely by alleviating disturbances of oxidative and energy metabolism  or in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which improved expression of apoptosis-related genes . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays a central role in the stress. Huprines, a group of potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), have shown a broad cholinergic pharmacological profile. Recently, it has been observed that huprine X (HX) improves cognition in non transgenic middle aged mice and shows a neuroprotective activity (increased synaptophysin expression) in 3xTg-AD mice. Consequently, in the present experiments the potential neuroprotective effect of huprines (HX, HY, HZ) has been analyzed in two different in vitro conditions: undifferentiated and NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. Cells were subjected to oxidative insult (H2O2, 200 µM) and the protective effects of HX, HY and HZ (0.01 µM-1 µM) were analyzed after a pre-incubation period of 24 and 48 hours. All huprines showed protective effects in both undifferentiated and NGF-differentiated cells, however only in differentiated cells the effect was dependent on cholinergic receptors as atropine (muscarinic antagonist, 0.1 µM) and mecamylamine (nicotinic antagonist, 100 µM) reverted the neuroprotection action of huprines. The decrease in SOD activity observed after oxidative insult was overcome in the presence of huprines and this effect was not mediated by muscarinic or nicotinic receptors. In conclusion, huprines displayed neuroprotective properties as previously observed in in vivo studies. In addition, these effects were mediated by cholinergic receptors only in differentiated cells. However, a non-cholinergic mechanism, probably through an increase in SOD activity, seems to be also involved in the neuroprotective effects of huprines.
PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74344. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074344 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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