The success of the rapidly desorbing fraction as an available fraction was challenged by using sediment ingesting and non-ingesting oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) together with passive samplers (semipermeable membrane devices, SPMDs) in accumulation and kinetic modelling exercises for carbon-14 labelled model compounds (pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl). Passive samplers clearly produced lower uptake rate constants and steady state factors than either of the oligochaete treatments when residue concentrations were based on animal lipid or total SPMD weight. The rapidly desorbing chemical fractions in sediments did not show a significant relationship with the biota sediment accumulation factors or SPMD accumulation factors. A distinctly better relationship was observed between the accumulation factors and the desorption rate constants. The results support the assumption that desorption plays an important role in bioavailability, although animal behaviour and the diffusional limitations of hydrophobic contaminants in sediment together probably affect the actual available pool.
"In particular such devices have been combined with specific in vitro bioassays for an integrative characterization of the contamination (Vermeirssen et al. 2005, Creusot et al. 2010, David et al. 2010, Harman et al. 2010). Moreover, in addition to surface water application, the use of passive sampling to assess bioavailable organic contaminants in sediments have been recently reported for more realistic risk characterization of environmental mixtures (Brack et al. 2009, Leppanen et Kukkonen 2006). The aim of this study was to assess spatial and temporal distribution of EDCs activities (estrogenic, anti-androgenic, PXR-like and dioxin-like) between sediment and surface water in order to highlight the source and fate of active chemicals. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The contamination of aquatic systems by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is now a widely established fact. Nevertheless, there is still a scarcity of knowledge concerning the source, transport, fate and bioavailability of such active compounds. In the present study we assessed the distribution of estrogenic, (anti-)androgenic, pregnane X receptor-like (PXR) and dioxin-like activities between sediment and water compartments using a polar organic compound integrative sampler (POCIS) and a semi-permeable membrane device (SPMD) passive sampler in a river where sediment has been previously described as highly and multi-contaminated. We first confirmed the contamination pattern of this river sediment between 2004, 2009 and 2010 samples, suggesting that this river is subject to a constant high contamination level. However, we showed a different distribution pattern of these activities between compartments: estrogenic activity was mainly detected in POCIS extracts and to a lesser extent in sediment and SPMD extracts; anti-androgenic activities were mainly detected in SPMD and sediment extracts while no activity was detected in POCIS extracts; PXR-like activity was detected in all three investigated compartments, with POCIS > SPMD > sediment; dioxin-like activity was mainly found in the sediment and the SPMD extracts. Overall, partitioning of the biological activities was in accordance with physicochemical properties (e.g., log K (ow)) of typical known active chemicals in each bioassay. Furthermore, in order to establish whether the chemicals involved in these activities were similar between the compartments, we fractionated sediment, POCIS and SPMD extracts using a multi-step fractionation procedure. This highlighted differences in the nature of active chemicals between compartments. Altogether, our results support the need to consider different compartments in order to enhance exposure assessment.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 01/2013; 20(5). DOI:10.1007/s11356-012-1452-5 · 2.83 Impact Factor
"Due to the fact, that L. variegatus unselectively ingests fine sediment particles (Kukkonen and Landrum, 1995), there is a high potential of ingesting toxic substances. For this species, the ingestion of particle-bound chemicals can be an important accumulation route of hydrophobic contaminants (Leppanen and Kukkonen, 2006). The uptake of these contaminants requires their bioavailability and depends on various factors like pH, humic acid and dissolved organic carbon content (Nikkila et al., 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical UV filters are used in sun protection and personal care products in order to protect consumers from skin cancer induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of three common UV filters butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (B-MDM) ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OCR) on aquatic organism, focussing particularly on infaunal and epibentic invertebrates (Chironomus riparius, Lumbriculus variegatus, Melanoides tuberculata and Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Due to their life habits, these organism are especially affected by lipophilic substances. Additionally, two direct sediment contact assays utilising zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryos and bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) were conducted. EHMC caused a toxic effect on reproduction in both snails with lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) of 0.4 mg/kg (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and 10 mg/kg (Melanoides tuberculata). At high concentrations sublethal effects could be observed for D. rerio after exposure to EHMC (NOEC 100 mg/kg). B-MDM and OCR showed no effects on any of the tested organism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) were once applied world wide but have been banned meanwhile in most countries because of their ecotoxicity, bioaccumulation and persistence. However, residues can still be present in soils even many years after applications have been stopped and taken up by crop plants. OCP accumulation from bound residues was found to be a particular problem in Cucurbitaceae plants. Two soil surveys performed in 2002 and 2005 in Switzerland revealed that OCP residues were taken up by cucumbers grown in soils that have been converted to organic production in the meantime. Even if legal tolerance values are not exceeded, this is a serious economic problem for the farmers affected by contaminated crops, because consumers of organically grown crops are only willing to pay the higher prices for these than for conventional products because they are particularly concerned about health and environmental quality and therefore expect pristine food. One approach to address the problem would be to increase the capacity of affected soils to bind OCP residues in order to prevent their uptake by the crops. In this study, we wanted to test the potential use of activated charcoal (AC) for this purpose. In addition, we wanted to assess the possibility of using OCP sorption in soil by Tenax® beads as a predictor for the phytoavailability of these compounds to cucumbers.
We performed two pot experiments in which the cash crop cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was grown in soil with bound residues of dieldrin (70 µg/kg), pentachloroaniline (<0.01 µg/kg) and p,p-DDE. The soil was taken from a field under organic farming in which these residues were found in the 2005 survey. In the first experiment, cucumbers were grown for 12 to 13 weeks (until fruits were ripe) in soil into which AC had been mixed at concentrations of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg and in untreated controls. In the second experiment, Tenax® beads were added to the soil and cucumbers, grown with and without AC amendment (800 mg/kg soil), were harvested after 4, 8, 10, 11, 12, and 13 weeks.
Dieldrin was the only pesticide detected in the sampled cucumbers and extracted from soil by the Tenax beads. Dieldrin concentrations in the cucumbers were significantly reduced in the treatments with 400 and 800 mg/kg AC. Also significantly less dieldrin was sorbed by Tenax from the soil amended with 800 mg/kg AC than from the untreated control soil. More dieldrin was found to be sorbed by Tenax in the last 3-4 weeks of the experiment, particularly in the control soil, but this trend was not significant. The correlation between the amounts of Tenax-sorbed dieldrin and dieldrin accumulation in the cucumber fruits was significant in control soil and 800 mg/kg AC soil. Hence, Tenax appeared to be suited for the assessment of dieldrin solubility in soil and of phytoavailability to cucumbers.
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