Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight status and obesity as risk factors for cesarean delivery
ABSTRACT To determine the extent to which, if at all, maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and other anthropometric factors are related to risk of cesarean delivery.
This hospital-based prospective cohort study included 738 nulliparous women who initiated prenatal care prior to 16 weeks gestation. Participants provided information about their pre-pregnancy weight and height and other sociodemographic and reproductive covariates. Labor and delivery characteristics were obtained from maternal and infant medical records. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% CI were estimated by fitting generalized linear models.
The proportion of cesarean deliveries in this population was 26%. Women who were overweight (BMI 25.00-29.99 kg/m2) were twice as likely to deliver their infants by cesarean section as lean women (BMI<20.00 kg/m2) (RR=2.09; 95% CI 1.27-3.42). Obese women (BMI>or=30.00 kg/m2) experienced a three-fold increase in risk of cesarean delivery when compared with this referent group (RR=3.05; 95% CI 1.80-5.18). The joint association between maternal pre-pregnancy overweight status and short stature was additive. When compared with tall (height>or=1.63 m), lean women, short (<1.63 m), overweight (BMI>or=25.00 kg/m2) women were nearly three times as likely to have a cesarean delivery (RR=2.79; 95% CI 1.72-4.52).
Our findings suggest that nulliparous women who are overweight or obese prior to pregnancy, and particularly those who are also short, have an increased risk of delivering their infants by cesarean section.
SourceAvailable from: Birgit Arabin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Overweight and obesity have become a global health problem. Obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy have a serious impact on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. Pre-conceptional obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with weight gain in women following childbirth leading to associated risks such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Long-term risks for the offspring are an increased risk for early cardiovascular events, metabolic syndrome and decreased life expectancy as adults. German health care has not yet adequately responded to this development. There are no clinical guidelines for obesity before, during or after pregnancy, there are no concerted actions amongst midwives, obstetricians, health advisors, politicians and the media. Research projects on effective interventions are lacking although health care concepts would be urgently needed to reduce future metabolic and cardiovascular risks for women and children as well as to minimize the associated costs for the society.Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 07/2014; 74(7):646-655. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1368462 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of maternal BMI on intrapartum interventions and adverse outcomes that may influence choice of planned birth setting in healthy women without additional risk factors. Prospective cohort study. Stratified random sample of English obstetric units. 17 230 women without medical or obstetric risk factors other than obesity. Multivariable log Poisson regression was used to evaluate the effect of BMI on risk of intrapartum interventions and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes adjusted for maternal characteristics. Maternal intervention or adverse outcomes requiring obstetric care (composite of: augmentation, instrumental delivery, intrapartum caesarean section, general anaesthesia, blood transfusion, 3rd/4th degree perineal tear); neonatal unit admission or perinatal death. In otherwise healthy women, obesity was associated with an increased risk of augmentation, intrapartum caesarean section and some adverse maternal outcomes but when interventions and outcomes requiring obstetric care were considered together, the magnitude of the increased risk was modest (adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.23, for BMI > 35 kg/m(2) relative to low risk women of normal weight). Nulliparous low risk women of normal weight had higher absolute risks and were more likely to require obstetric intervention or care than otherwise healthy multiparous women with BMI > 35 kg/m(2) (maternal composite outcome: 53% versus 21%). The perinatal composite outcome exhibited a similar pattern. Otherwise healthy multiparous obese women may have lower intrapartum risks than previously appreciated. BMI should be considered in conjunction with parity when assessing the potential risks associated with birth in non-obstetric unit settings.BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 09/2013; 121(3). DOI:10.1111/1471-0528.12437 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity rates have drastically increased worldwide, particularly in women in reproductive-age as well as in children. This is relevant for the challenges that the health system will face in the near future. Recently, national surveys in Mexico and United States have shown a moderate decrease in the acceleration rates of obesity. Hopefully such behavior reflects results from preventive programs, or perhaps is due to methodological unidentified issues. Importantly, such decrease seems insufficient to reach the "ideal" prevalence of obesity. From the genetic point of view, based in the presence of the R230C polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene identified only in Amerindian populations it seems that some ethnic groups might be more susceptible to develop obesity. However, it is important to take into account that susceptibility may also be explained by interactions among variants in different genes. In conclusion, obesity prevalence in Mexico is close to those in developed countries, and it is particularly alarming in adolescents and women in reproductive-age. Evidence suggests that Mexican population might present a higher susceptibility, but more studies are needed.12/2008; 65(6):421-430.