Ritonavir-based highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected infants younger than 24 months of age.
ABSTRACT Few data are available regarding clinical outcomes or dosing requirements for the protease inhibitor ritonavir in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children younger than under 24 months of age.
This prospective, multicenter phase I/II open label treatment trial used ritonavir, zidovudine and lamivudine to treat protease inhibitor-naive, HIV-infected infants between the ages of 4 weeks and 24 months. Two sequential dosing cohorts were treated with 350 or 450 mg/m(2) ritonavir every 12 hours; this report includes results of pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerability and efficacy through 104 weeks of follow-up of all subjects.
Fifty HIV-infected children were treated. By week 16, 36 had achieved HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL (72% intent-to-treat, 84% as-treated analysis); by week 104, 18 maintained durable viral suppression (36% intent-to-treat, 46% as-treated). Poor medication adherence by caregiver report contributed to virologic failure. Few subjects experienced treatment-limiting toxicity: emesis or ritonavir refusal in 6 (12%); and severe but reversible anemia or elevated serum hepatic transaminases in 1 (4%) each. Apparent oral clearance was higher and the median predose concentrations were substantially lower than those found in adults. Median z scores for weight and height for age/gender were below normal at baseline but improved by week 104.
A combination regimen of ritonavir, zidovudine and lamivudine was generally safe and produced sustained viral suppression in more than one-third of infants who initiated therapy before 2 years of age. Improved palatability of liquid preparations of protease inhibitors, supporting infrastructure and behavioral approaches to improve medication adherence with antiretrovirals will likely be necessary to further improve efficacy.
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ABSTRACT: Several guidelines are available to guide the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. The recommendations in these guidelines show significant variability. Because there is no well-established evidence on when to start HAART, it is left to the discretion of the pediatrician which guidelines to follow. We conducted a survey concerning the indications for starting antiretroviral therapy among pediatricians involved in the treatment of HIV-infected patients in Europe and the United States. We compared the results of this survey with the guidelines available at the time, the recently adapted guidelines and literature evidence. Our results indicate that in clinical practice HAART was initiated at higher viral loads and lower CD4 counts than recommended by the guidelines. American guidelines recommended and still recommend more aggressive treatment than the European guidelines, and this is reflected in clinical practice. Until recently all guidelines were based on long term risk analyses of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and death performed in cohort data. A recent short term risk analysis makes it possible to calculate the 6 or 12-month risk for progression to AIDS or death for an individual child. Because viral load and CD4 count are typically measured every 3 months, one can argue that it is clinically more relevant to base the decision of when to start HAART on the short term probability of disease progression. Guidelines in Europe are now based on this type of analysis. The American guidelines only adopted the thresholds for CD4 and viral load. The short term risk analysis also shows that the risk for developing AIDS varies markedly with age. This should be reflected in all guidelines. Determining the acceptable risk of disease progression is difficult and influenced by patient-, doctor- and culture-related factors. The controversy over whether or not to treat asymptomatic infants is unresolved as well. All infants have a very high risk of disease progression regardless of their viral load or CD4 count, but lifelong treatment with a potential for significant toxicities and risk of developing resistance is also not an appealing option. We recommend an attempt to achieve a consensus among the different working groups to reduce the number of different guidelines, which should be based on the literature evidence. Because all risk analyses are based on information from the pre-HAART era, a head-to-head trial comparing early versus deferred HAART would be useful. This may be difficult to accomplish. The first step could be an analysis of retrospective data from collaborative cohort data.The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 12/2006; 25(11):987-94. DOI:10.1097/01.inf.0000242670.11693.56 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The long-term impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on HIV-1 infected children is not well known. The Danish Paediatric HIV Cohort Study includes all patients <16 y of age with HIV-1 infection in Denmark. We report the complete follow-up from 1996 to 2005 of 49 perinatally infected children treated with HAART. Initial HAART included 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors in combination with either a protease inhibitor (n =38) or a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (n =12). 19 (39%) patients were previously treated with mono- or dual therapy. Baseline characteristics were median CD4 percentage 14% and HIV-RNA viral load 4.9 log(10). Within the first 12 weeks of therapy approximately 60% achieved HIV-RNA viral load <500 copies/ml, and this remained stable for up to 8 y, although many children changed the components of HAART. The proportion of children with CD4 percentage >25% increased to 60-70% over the y of treatment. For the total cohort, 245 patient-y of observation were available with only 1 death. During our observation period there were no signs of a waning impact. The challenge remains to maintain a high adherence to therapy as the children grow into adolescence and develop more independence from family and health care staff.Infectious Diseases 01/2007; 39(9):799-804. DOI:10.1080/00365540701203493 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of HIV infection and the general principles of therapy are the same for HIV-infected adults, adolescents, children and infants. However, antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection in pediatrics requires the consideration of a number of factors specific to its population, including differences in drug pharmacokinetics and the use of virologic and immunologic markers, as well as age-related adherence issues. This review summarizes the text of the Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection, which was updated in October 2006. The guidelines are the work of the Working Group on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children, a group of the Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council of the National Institutes of Health, which reviews new data on an ongoing basis and provides regular updates to the guidelines. As these guidelines were developed for the US, they may not be applicable in other countries. This summary does not attempt to place the Working Group guidelines in the context of international guidelines, nor does it attempt to detail the use of antiretroviral medication in the prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV, such as addressing the use of zidovudine versus single-dose nevirapine.Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 03/2007; 8(2):155-66. DOI:10.1517/146565188.8.131.52 · 3.09 Impact Factor