Use of tolterodine in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity: relationship between dose and urodynamic response.
ABSTRACT Three exploratory studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of tolterodine in children 1 month to 15 years old with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. We urodynamically evaluated the dose and concentration effects of tolterodine to establish safe and effective dosing regimens.
Three open-label, dose escalating studies were conducted in children with stable neurological disease and detrusor overactivity. In studies 1 (patient aged 1 month to 4 years) and 2 (5 to 10 years) patients received 0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg tolterodine solution day twice daily for 4 weeks each. In study 3 (patient age 11 to 15 years) patients received 2, 4 and 6 mg tolterodine extended-release capsules once daily for 4 weeks each. PK was assessed after 8 weeks, urodynamic assessments were conducted after each 4-week dosing period and 3-day micturition diaries were completed.
Patients in studies 1 (19) and 2 (15) showed some dose related increases in volume to first detrusor contraction and cystometric bladder capacity. In study 3 (11 patients) there were no obvious dose-response relationships. PK results from studies 1 and 2 suggest that there was no apparent effect of age (< or =10 y) on these parameters. In study 3 time of maximum observed serum concentration and apparent terminal half-life were delayed, which is consistent with the extended-release formulation. Tolterodine was well tolerated, and there was no apparent relationship between tolterodine dose and adverse events in any study.
These results support the safety of age and body weight adjusted dosing regimens for further clinical evaluation of tolterodine in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate colonic motility in patients with myelomeningocele, the transit time of radiopaque markers was studied in 22 patients with myelomeningocele and 22 age and sex matched controls. Mean colonic transit time was significantly longer in patients than in controls (103.2 +/- 49 h versus 23.3 +/- 13 h; P < 10(-7). Thirteen of 22 patients with myelomeningocele were severely constipated. Six patients had constipation secondary to delayed colonic transit, particularly in the left colon, and seven had increased rectosigmoid transit. The clinical questionnaire and particularly the frequency of bowel movements did not predict colonic transit. Among 13 patients with increased colonic transit, eight had more than five bowel movements per week and, thus, six of them did not use laxatives or enemas, despite the presence of faecal incontinence. There was no relationship between colonic transit time and the level of the spinal lesion or patient mobility in patients with myelomeningocele. Rectoanal dyssynergia was found in 14 of the 22 patients, but equally often in patients with delayed rectosigmoid transit (4/7) as in the other patients (10/15) (P = ns). Uninhibited detrusor contractions were observed more often in patients with increased colonic transit time than in others (8/12 versus 1/8, P = 0.05). In the absence of a correlation between colonic transit time, clinical symptoms, anorectal motility, level of spinal lesion, patient mobility, evaluation of colonic transit of radiopaque markers should be assessed routinely in all patients with myelomeningocele to plan the most appropriate treatment, mainly in case of unhibited detrusor contractions.Neurogastroenterology and Motility 06/1997; 9(2):63-70. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report our experience with the intravesical administration of oxybutynin chloride with particular focus on the incidence and characterization of untoward effects and inconvenience of therapy. From 1990 to 1995, 23 children 5 to 11 years old with myelodysplasia were treated with intravesical oxybutynin chloride. Initial dose was 1.25 mg. in 5 cc sterile water instilled during routine catheterization 3 times daily, which was increased as tolerated and clinically indicated. Oral anticholinergic, antispasmodic and sympathomimetic medications were discontinued during therapy. We reviewed therapeutic indications, doses, frequency duration, reason for discontinuation and untoward effects. Patients/parents were surveyed for convenience of treatment as well as side effects and their timing with respect to drug administration and dose. In 15 patients (65%) treatment was discontinued and oral formulations were resumed or other therapy was required due to side effects, ineffectiveness or inconvenience. Seven patients had untoward effects, ranging from facial flushing and dizziness to agoraphobia and hyperactivity. Six patients discontinued therapy due to side effects after 1 day to 2 years (mode 1 month) at doses of 1.25 to 5 mg., including 5 who previously had side effects from oral oxybutynin chloride. Inconvenience of therapy was noted irrespective of the degree of independence of the child for performing intravesical therapy. Untoward effects and inconvenience are the most common reasons for discontinuing intravesical oxybutynin chloride therapy for neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Children who previously had side effects from oral oxybutynin chloride are more likely to have them during intravesical therapy.The Journal of Urology 03/1997; 157(2):638-40. · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of oral oxybutynin chloride (OC) on standard urodynamic measures in children with myelomeningocele (MMC) and detrusor hyperreflexia. Forty-one MMC children with detrusor hyperreflexia (19 boys and 22 girls, aged 2 months to 15 years; mean 4.9 years) were evaluated urodynamically before and within 3 months after initiation of oral OC therapy (0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg/day). Therapy with oral OC was always combined with clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Oral OC treatment caused an increase in bladder capacity from 141 +/- 96 to 197 +/- 99 mL (+ 40%; P < 0.01), a decrease in detrusor pressure at maximal capacity from 45 +/- 32 to 28 +/- 23 cm H2O (-38%; P < 0.01), and an increase in detrusor compliance from 6.5 +/- 5.6 to 16.8 +/- 13.7 mL/cm H2O (+ 158%; P < 0.01). Improvement in urodynamic measures and continence were correlated. After a follow-up of at least 2 years, effective protection of renal function was achieved in 38 of the 41 children (93%) with conservative therapy alone. Adverse effects resulted in discontinuation of oral OC treatment in only 2 cases. Treatment with oral OC and CIC is effective and safe in children with MMC and detrusor hyperreflexia and should be initiated early when indicated by urodynamic findings.Urology 01/1998; 51(1):94-8. · 2.42 Impact Factor